Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Urethrotomy

Contributor(s): Vladimir Jekl, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Urethrotomy describes an opening/incision into the urethra.

Uses

  • Urethrotomy is used for removal of any tissue/material causing intraluminal or intramural partial or total urethral blockage Urinary tract obstruction.
  • This technique is commonly used for urethral calculi removal Urolithiasis. Urethral calculi cause discomfort, pain, dysuria and hematuria. Total urethral obstruction may result in post-renal kidney failure Kidney: renal failure.
  • Uroliths are more commonly found in the distal male urethra.
  • Pre-operative full work-up is recommended, which includes clinical examination, hematology, blood chemistry (evaluation of renal function) urinalysis, blood acid-base balance, abdominal radiography , abdominal ultrasonography with focus on the urinary bladder and kidneys.

Advantages

  • Direct approach to the urethral lumen.
  • Relatively easy to perform.
  • Minimal morbidity.
  • Requires minimal equipment.
  • The surgery mostly resolves the problem.

Disadvantages

  • In case of urethral obstruction, it is hard or even impossible to retropulse the urolith into the bladder/pass a catheter up to the affected area.
  • Therefore, in cases of urinary bladder distension, cystocentesis is recommended before the surgery.
  • Urethra needs to be well sutured as urinary leakage can cause pain resulting in self-mutilation and wound dehiscence.
  • Penis in a castrated male is much smaller than an intact animal making the approach to the urethra more difficult.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Good.
  • Guarded in case of kidney/metabolic failure.
  • Surgery itself is good.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Maia R S, Babinski M A, Figueiredo M A et al (2016) Concentration of elastic system fibers in the corpus cavernosum, corpus spongiosum, and tunica albuginea in the rabbit penis. Int J Impot Res 18 (2), 121-125 PubMed.
  • Olabu B, Gichangi P, Saidi H & Ogeng’o J (2014) Castration causes progressive reduction of length of the rabbit penis. Anat J Afr 3 (3), 412-416.
  • Ozgel O, Dursun N, Cengelci A & Ates S (2003) Arterial supply of the penis in the New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.). Anat Histol Embryol 32 (1), 6-8 PubMed.
  • Szabo Z, Bradley K & Cahalane A K (2016) Rabbit soft tissue surgery. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 19 (1), 159-188 PubMed.
  • Weese J S, Blondeau J M, Boothe D et al (2011) Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of urinary tract disease in dogs and cats: antimicrobial guidelines working group of the international society for companion animal infectious diseases. Vet Med Int Article ID 263768, 9 pages VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Keeble E & Benato L (2013) Urinary Tract Surgery. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Imaging, Surgery and Dentistry. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F M & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 190-211.
  • Fossum T V (1997) Surgery of the Urinary Bladder and Urethra. In: Small Animal Surgery. Ed: Fossum T V. Mosby, USA. pp 481-516.


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