ISSN 2398-2969      

Stomatoscopy

Clapis

Synonym(s): Oral endoscopy


Introduction

  • Stomatoscopy, or oral endoscopy, is a valuable technique to allow a thorough and detailed examination of the oral cavity allowing better visualization of structures that may have been missed with the naked eye. It can facilitate diagnosis, treatment and re-evaluation of rabbits with dental disease.

Uses

  • Evaluation of the oral cavity, allowing focused illumination, magnification and improved visualization of structures and lesions.
  • For detailed examination of the lingual, buccal and occlusal aspects of every tooth.
  • Identification of masses and permits biopsies to be taken for cytology, bacteriology and/or histopathology.
  • Removal of laryngeal foreign bodies and other foreign bodies, eg needle stuck in the cheek.

Advantages

  • Can be curative if foreign objects (such as a blade of grass or piece of hay) are detected and removed.
  • The 30° angle of the 1.9 mm or 2.7 mm telescope provides a better view of the occlusal surfaces of the teeth.
  • Exudates, gingival changes, overgrowth of the arcades, masses, abscesses and foreign bodies can be easily visualized.
  • Biopsy samples can be readily obtained if appropriate.
  • Stomatoscopy-aided dental trimming, tooth removal, and abscess debridement allows for better visualization when performing these procedures.
  • The ability to take pictures and videos using an endoscopic camera can also help give owners a better understanding of the condition leading to a willingness to pursue treatment and future preventative medicine.

Disadvantages

  • Equipment relatively expensive.
  • Limited access to the oral cavity may prevent the use of endotracheal tubes.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Dependent on underlying cause.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Capello V (2016) Diagnostic imaging of dental disease in pet rabbits and rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 19 (3), 757-782 PubMed.
  • Divers S J (2015) Making the difference in exotic animal practice. The value of endoscopy. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 18 (3), 351-357 PubMed.
  • Divers S J (2010) Exotic mammal diagnostic endoscopy and endosurgery. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 13 (2), 255-272 PubMed.
  • Divers S J (2010) Endoscopic equipment and instrumentation for use in exotic animal veterinary medicine. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 13 (2), 171-185 PubMed.
  • Martínez-Jiménez D, Hernández-Divers S J, Dietrich U M, O Williams C, Blasier M W, Wilson H & Frank P M (2007) Endosurgical treatment of a retrobulbar abscess in a rabbit. JAVMA 230 (6), 868-872 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Divers S J & Proenca L (2014) Rabbit Diagnostic Endoscopy. In: Proc of Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Conference. Orlando, USA. pp 1-5.
  • Melillo A (2013) Endoscopy. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and ImagingEds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 115-122.

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