Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Rhinoscopy

Contributor(s): Sarah Pellett, Livia Benato

Introduction

  • Rhinoscopy is a very useful procedure for making a diagnosis in rabbits presenting with rhinitis   Rhinitis / sinusitis  .

Uses

  • Evaluation of the nasal passages - rhinitis is a common presentation in rabbits, and has multifactorial etiologies.
  • Allows irrigation of the nasal cavities, removing excess secretions.
  • Identification of masses and permits biopsies to be taken.
  • Detection of infection and collection of washings or biopsies for cytology, bacteriology and/or histopathology.
  • Removal of foreign bodies.

Advantages

  • Can be curative if foreign objects (such as a blade of grass) are detected and removed.
  • Exudates, masses, abscesses and foreign bodies can be easily visualized and biopsy samples can be readily obtained.

Disadvantages

  • A deep plane of anesthesia   Anesthesia: general   is required as well as local analgesia   Analgesia  .
  • In rabbits <2 kg, a 2.7 mm endoscope with its sheath is too large to evaluate deep into the nasal cavity. A 2.7 mm telescope can be used unsheathed and nasal passages irrigated using a syringe but the results are less satisfactory and there is a risk of damaging the telescope if it gets bent.
  • The mucosa of the turbinates is fragile and may bleed profusely. Minor bleeding tends to occur frequently.
  • Equipment relatively expensive.
  • May not be curative, further surgery, radiation therapy or infusion of medication may be required if a mass or abscess identified.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Dependant on underlying cause.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Divers S J (2010)Endoscopic equipment and instrumentation for use in exotic animal veterinary medicine. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract13(2), 171-185PubMed.
  • Divers S J (2010)Exotic mammal diagnostic endoscopy and endosurgery. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract13(2), 255-272PubMed.
  • Ivey E & J Morrisey (2000)Therapeutics for rabbits.Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract3(1), 183-216PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Divers S J & Proenca L (2014)Rabbit Diagnostic Endoscopy. In:Proc Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Conference.Orlando, Florida. pp 19-24: 1-5.
  • Melillo A (2013)Endoscopy. In:BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 115-122.


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