ISSN 2398-2969      

Ophthalmic examination

Clapis

Introduction

  • Ophthalmic examination should be an integral part of any rabbit clinical examination Clinical examination.
  • Ophthalmoscopy of the rabbit differs little from ocular examination in other mammals but some differences, such as the merangiotic nature of the retina, should be understood.

Uses

  • Examination of the eye, including adnexal structures.

Advantages

  • Ocular disorders are frequent in pet rabbits.
  • Ocular examination should be part of routine clinical examination.

Disadvantages

  • Restraint required may be stressful for some individuals.
  • Atropine Atropine (used as a mydriatic in many species) is ineffective in the majority of rabbits.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Depends on condition detected.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bedard K M (2019) Ocular surface disease of rabbits. Vet Clin Exot Anim 22 (1), 1-14 PubMed.
  • Lima L, Lange R R, Turner-Giannico A et al (2015) Evaluation of standardized endodontic paper point tear test in New Zealand white rabbits and comparison between corneal sensitivity followed tear tests. Vet Ophthalmol 18 (1), 119-24 PubMed.
  • Whittaker A L & Williams D L (2015) Evaluation of lacrimation characteristics in clinically normal New Zealand white rabbits by using Schirmer Tear Test. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 54 (6), 783-787 PubMed.
  • Wei X E, Markoulli M, Zhao Z & Willcox M D (2013) Tear film break-up time in rabbits. Clin Exp Optom 96 (1), 70-75 PubMed.
  • Biricik H S, Oguz H, Sindak N et al (2005) Evaluation of the Schirmer and phenol red thread tests for measuring tear secretion in rabbits. Vet Rec 156 (15), 485-487 PubMed.
  • Brown S A (1997) Clinical techniques in rabbits. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med (2), 86-95 ScienceDirect.
  • Abrams K L, Brooks D E, Funk R S et al (1990) Evaluation of the Schirmer tear test in clinically normal rabbits. Am J Vet Res 51 (12), 1912-1913 PubMed.
  • Bauck L (1989) Ophthalmic conditions in pet rabbits and rodents. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 11 (3), 258-266 VetMedResource.
  • Hamano H, Hori M, Hamano T et al (1983) A new method for measuring tears. CLAO J 9 (3), 281-289 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Knott T (2014) Ophthalmology. In: British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 232-254.
  • University of California Veterinary Ophthalmology Service (2011) Examination of the Eye. In: Comparative Ophthalmology Notes. Website: www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu.

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