Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Endotracheal intubation

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, Joanna Hedley, Lesa Longley, Bairbre O'Malley, Lesa Thompson

Introduction

  • Placing a tube in the trachea:
    • Ensures that open airway is maintained.
    • Allows administration of oxygen and/or anesthetic gases.
    • Minimizes leakage of waste gases into the environment.
    • Permits IPPV (intermittent positive pressure ventilation).

Uses

  • Providing supplementary oxygen.
  • Manual/mechanical ventilation of patient during routine anesthesia to check/help maintain tube patency, during thoracotomies, or in respiratory failure.
  • Maintenance of anesthesia.
  • Permits passage of catheter for bronchoalveolar lavage.
  • Prevention of aspiration during:

Advantages

  • Safe if carried out correctly.
  • Simple and requires only equipment usually found in veterinary practice.
  • Effective.
  • Cheap.
  • Component of 'best practice' anesthesia.

Disadvantages

  • Risk of laryngospasm   →   fatalities, especially after failed attempts. More than 2 attempts are not recommended.
  • Hemorrhage/edema of oral soft tissues or larynx.
  • Iatrogenic introduction of food and debris into the airway.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Crotaz I R (2013)Observational clinical study in cats and rabbits of the use of an anatomically designed supraglottic airway device intended for companion animal veterinary anaesthesia.Vet Rec172(23), 606PubMed.
  • Johnson D H (2010)Endoscopic intubation of exotic companion mammals.Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract3(2), 273-289PubMed
  • Stephens Devalle J M (2009)Successful management of rabbit anesthesia through the use of nasotracheal intubation.J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci48(2), 166-170PubMed.
  • Lennox A M & Capello V (2008)Tracheal intubation in exotic companion mammals. J Exotic Pet Med17(3), 221-227.
  • Longley L (2008)Clinical refresher: Intubation of rabbits.UK Vet13(5), 68-70.
  • Morgan T J & Glowaski M M (2007)Teaching a new method of rabbit intubation.J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci46(3), 32-36PubMed.
  • Grint N J, Sayers I R, Cecchi R, Harley R & Day M J (2006)Postanaesthetic tracheal strictures in three rabbits.Lab Anim40(3), 301-308.
  • Phaneuf L R, Barker S, Groleau M A, & Turner P V (2006)Tracheal injury after endotracheal intubation and anesthesia in rabbits.J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci45(6), 67-72PubMed.
  • Smith J C, L D Robertson, A Auhll, T J March, C Derring & B Bolon (2004)Endotracheal tubes versus laryngeal mask airways in rabbit inhalation anesthesia: ease of use and waste gas emissions.Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci43(4), 22-25PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Muir W W, J A E Hubbell, R M Bednarski & R T Skarda (2007)Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia.4th edn. Mosby Elsevier.
  • Flecknell P A (2006)Anaesthesia and Peri-operative Care.In:Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P A. BSAVA. pp 154-156.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002)Anaesthesia and Analgesia. In:Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Ed: Harcourt-Brown F. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. pp 121-139.
  • Mason D E (1997)Anesthesia, Analgesia and Sedation for Small Mammals.In:Ferrets, Rabbits & Rodents: Clinical Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Hillyer E V & Quesenberry K E. W B Saunders. pp 378-391.
  • Gillett C S (1994)Selected Drug Doses and Clinical Reference Data.In:The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D H & Newcomer C E. 2nd edn. Academic Press, London. pp 468-472.


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