Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Urinalysis: creatinine

Contributor(s): Sarah Pellett, Vicki Baldrey


  • Creatinine is derived from muscle metabolism.
  • It is freely filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine.
  • Creatinine levels may be increased by severe renal insufficiency or severe muscle damage.
  • Urine creatinine concentrations can be measured in the same way as serum creatinine   Blood biochemistry: creatinine  .


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  • As for serum creatinine   Blood biochemistry: creatinine  , but run urine creatinine diluted, then factor up.
  • Urine creatinine should read the same as serum creatinine, but in dilution as creatinine is higher in urine than blood.


  • Widely available at commercial laboratories.

Result Data

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Jenkins J R (2010)Evaluation of the rabbit urinary tract.  J Exotic Pet Med19(4), 271-279VetMedResource.
  • Jenkins J R (2008)Rabbit diagnostic testing. J Exotic Pet Med17(1), 4-15JExoticPetMed.
  • Melillo A (2007)Rabbit clinical pathology.  J Exotic Pet Med16(3), 135-145VetMedResource.
  • Paul-Murphy J (2007)Critical care of the rabbit.  Vet Clin Exotic Anim Pract10(2), 437-461PubMed.
  • Cray C & Zaias J (2004)Laboratory procedures.  Vet Clin Exotic Anim Pract7(2), 487-518PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Varga M (2014)Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, Edinburgh.
  • Klaphake E & Paul-Murphy J (2012)Disorders of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems. In: Ferrets, Rabbits & Rodents Clinical Medicine & Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis.
  • Oglesbee B L (2011)Blackwells Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal. 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, New Delhi.
  • Jenkins J R (2006)Clinical Pathology. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester.
  • Saunders R A & Rees Davies R (2005) Eds Notes on Rabbit Internal Medicine. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.


  • Mary Pinborough, Pinmoore Animal Laboratory Services Ltd, The Coach House, Town House Barn, Clotton, Cheshire CW6 0EG, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1829 781855; Email: ; Website: .