ISSN 2398-2969      

Vitamin A

Clapis
Contributor(s):

Molly Varga

Anna Meredith

Synonym(s): Retinal, retinol, retinoic acid


Introduction

Name

  • Retinol.

Class of drug

  • Vitamin.

Description

Chemical name

  • 3,7-dimethyl-9-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexen-l-yl)nona-2,4,6,8-tetraen-l-ol.

Molecular formula

  • C20H30O.

Molecular weight

  • 286.

Physical properties

  • Yellow crystals or an orange solid.
  • Practically water insoluble.
  • Light sensitive.
  • Non-flammable.

Storage requirements

  • Protect from exposure to light.
  • Keep containers tightly closed to prevent oxidation.

Uses

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Indications

  • Hypovitaminosis A   Hypovitaminosis A  .
  • Some chemotherapeutic protocols for certain neoplasias (specific leukemias, mammary tumors).
  • Certain skin diseases (retinoids).

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Cholestyramine and neomycin may affect oral uptake and absorption as does mineral oil.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Castellini C, Mourvaki E, Dal Bosco A et al (2007) Vitamin E biochemistry and function: A case study in male rabbit. Reprod Dom Anim 42 (3), 248-256 PubMed.
  • Blumhoff R & Blumhoff H K (2006) Overview of retinoid metabolism and function. J Neurobiol 66 (7), 606-630 PubMed.
  • Czarnecki W & Zimmer L (2006) Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of alpha-tocopherol in rabbits. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skladowska Lublin-Polonia 19 (2, 22), 153-160.
  • St Clair M B, Kennett M J & Besch-Williford C L (2004) Vitamin A toxicity and vitamin E deficiency in a rabbit colony. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 43 (4), 26-30 PubMed.
  • Collins M D & Mao G E (1999) Teratology of retinoids. Ann Rev Pharmacol & Toxicol 39 (1), 399-430 PubMed.
  • Tzimas G, Collins M D, Bürgin H et al (1996) Embryotoxic doses of vitamin A to rabbits result in low plasma but high embryonic concentrations of all trans-retinoic acid: risk of vitamin A exposure in humans. J Nutr 126 (9), 2159-2171 PubMed.
  • Hennekens CH , Mayrent S L & Willett W (1986) Vitamin A, carotenoids and retinoids. Cancer 58 (8 Suppl), 1347-1841 PubMed
  • Fox R R, Eaton H D & Crary D D (1982) Vitamin A, betacarotene and hereditary buphthalmus in the rabbit. J Hered 73 (5), 370-374 PubMed.
  • McMichael H (1965) Inhibition of Shope rabbit papilloma by hypervitaminosis A. Cancer Res 25 (7), 947-955 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Higdon J, Drake V J & Traber M G (2008) Vitamin E. Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center. Website:http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminE
  • Higdon J, Drake V J & Russell R M (2007) Vitamin A. Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center. Website:http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminA
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann.
  • Lowe J A (1998) Pet Rabbit Feeding and Nutrition. In:The Nutrition of The Rabbit. Eds: de Blas C & Wiseman J. pp 309-332 CABI Publishing.
  • McDonald P, Edwards R A, Greenhalgh J F D & Morgan C A (1996) Animal Nutrition. 5th edn. Longman.
  • Cheeke P R (1994) Nutrition and Nutritional diseases. In:The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit.2nd edn. Eds: Manning  P J, Ringler D H & Newcomer C E. Academic Press. pp 321-333.
  • Hunt C E & Harrington D D (1974) Nutrition and Nutritional diseases of the Rabbit. In:The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 1st edn. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D H & Newcomer C E. Academic Press. pp 403-428.
  • The British National Formulary. Website:www.BNF.org.uk.
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