Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Verapamil

Synonym(s): Securon, Cordilox

Contributor(s): Lesa Thompson, Sarah Pellett

Introduction

Name

  • Verapamil hydrochloride.

Class of drug

  • Calcium channel blocker.
  • Class IV antidysrhythmic agent.

Description

Chemical name

  • Benzeneacetonitrile, alpha-[3-[[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]methylamino]propyl]-3,4-dimethoxy-alpha-(1-methylethyl), monohydrochloride.

Molecular formula

  • C27H39ClN2O4.

Molecular weight

  • 491.06.

Uses

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Indications

  • Main use in rabbits is to reduce post-surgical adhesions   Abdomen: adhesion formation - post-surgical  . Adhesion formation may often occur due to trauma of serosal surfaces in peritoneum. Fibrin on traumatized serosal surfaces from into fibrous adhesions. Such adhesions along with cellular spreading progress as a consequence of influx of calcium. In other species, adhesion formation limited by fibrinolysin, but this enzyme is only present at low levels in rabbits.
  • Shown to be beneficial in early acute renal failure   Kidney: renal failure  . An experimental study administered verapamil IV before induction of renal damage. The study showed functional protection of proximal tubules, with significantly increased creatinine clearance in this model for acute renal ischemia.
  • Cardiac arrhythmias   Heart: arrhythmia  are not commonly reported in rabbits. In these cases verapamil may be used for supraventricular tachycardia and/or treatment of atrial flutter or fibrillation.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Combination with cardiac glycosides.
  • Digoxin   Digoxin  plasma concentrations are increased by verapamil.
  • Not to be used with beta blockers; profound effect due to negative inotropic and chronotropic effects of both drugs.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Abdel Mouez M, Maki N M, Monsour S et al (2014) Bioavailability enhancement of verapamil HCl via intranasal chitosan microspheres. Eur J Pharm Sci 51, 59-66 PubMed.
  • Vidyahdara S, Sasidhar R L & Nagaraju R (2013) Design and development of polyethylene oxide based matrix tablets for verapamil hydrochloride. Indian J Pharm Sci 75 (2), 185-190 PubMed.
  • Reusch B (2005) Investigation and management of cardiovascular disease in rabbits. In Practice 27 (8), 418-425 VetMedResource.
  • Alvarez A, Martul E, Veiga F et al (1994) Functional, histological and ultrastructural study of the protective effects of verapamil in experimental ischemic acute renal failure in the rabbit. Renal Failure 16 (12), 193-207 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mancinelli E & Lord B (2014) Urogenital System and Reproductive Disease. In:BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, Gloucester.
  • Orcutt C (2014) Cardiovascular Disease. In:BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, Gloucester.
  • Ramsey I (2014) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 8th edn. BSAVA. ISBN: 9781905319657.
  • Varga M (2014) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinmann Elsevier, Edinburgh.
  • Fisher P G (2013) Renal Disorders. In:Clinical Veterinary Advisor. Birds and Exotic Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier, Missouri.
  • Raftery A (2013) Cardiovascular Disease. In:Clinical Veterinary Advisor. Birds and Exotic Pets.Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier, Missouri. 
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2013) Veterinary Medicines Guidance Notes. Website:www.gov.uk/government/collections/veterinary-medicines-guidance-notes-vmgns.

Organisation(s)


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