Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Trimethoprim/sulfadiazine

Contributor(s): Anna Meredith

Introduction

Name

  • Trimethoprim/sulfonamide.

Class of drug

  • Potentiated sulfonamide antibiotic.

Uses

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Indications

  • Many organisms are susceptible includingNocardia,Brucella, gram-negative bacilli, some gram-positive organisms (Streptococcispp   Streptococcus spp.  ,Pneumocystis carinii,Toxoplasma gondii,Eimeriaand coccidial species).
  • Pseudomonasspp   Pseudomonads  andLeptospiraspp are usually resistant.
  • Trimethoprim/sulfonamide is useful in the management of urinary, respiratory tract and prostatic infections, but are ineffective in the presence of necrotic tissue.
  • Trimethoprim alone may be used for urinary, prostatic, systemic salmonella and respiratory tract infections.
  • Fewer adverse effects are seen with trimethoprim alone.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Warfarin
  • The anticoagulant effect of warfarin may be enhanced by trimethoprim/sulfonamide.

Antacids

  • May decrease the bioavailability of sulfonamides if administered concurrently.
  • Although sulfonamides may displace other plasma protein-bound drugs such as methotrexate, probenecid, thiazide diuretics and salicylates, the clinical relevance of such interactions is unclear. However, patients should be monitored for enhanced effects of displaced agents.
  • Concomitant use of drugs containing procaine may inhibit sulfonamide action.

with diagnostic tests

  • When using the Jaffe alkaline picrate reaction assay for creatinine determination trimethoprim/sulfonamide may cause an over estimation of approximately 10%.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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