ISSN 2398-2969      

Ranitidine

Clapis

Introduction

Name

  • Ranitidine.
  • Usually available and used as the hydrochloride salt, ranitidine hydrochloride.
  • Ranitidine bismuth citrate also used in human medicine.

Class of drug

  • Histamine (H2) receptor antagonist.

Description

Chemical name

  • N[2-[[[5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2furanyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]-N'-methyl-2-nitro-1,1-ethenediamine.

Molecular formula

  • C13H22N4O3S.

Molecular weight

  • 350.87 g.

Physical properties

  • White to pale yellow granular substance.
  • Water soluble.
  • Slightly bitter taste.
  • Sulfur-like odor.

Storage requirements

  • According to manufacturer's instructions.

Uses

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Indications

  • Indicated in rabbits as a useful prokinetic drug for the treatment of gut stasis.
  • It may be a better option than metoclopramide   Metoclopramide  in young rabbits as it has been suggested that metoclopramide is only effective as a motility stimulant in adult rabbits.
  • Cisapride   Cisapride  has been shown to potentiate the prokinetic effect of ranitidine at low doses but antagonize it at higher doses.
  • Used to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers, including NSAID-induced ulceration.
  • Used prophylactically to prevent stress ulcers.
  • Adjunct therapy for reversing metabolic alkalosis.
  • Treatment ofHelicobactergastritis in combination with antibiotics (in humans, dogs and cats).
  • Immunomodulation.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Antacids, digoxin, ketoconazole or metoclopramide   Metoclopramide  : ranitidine may reduce their absorption or effect.
  • Sucralfate: may reduce the absorption of ranitidine.

with diagnostic tests

  • Little information available.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Khedr A (2008) Sensitive determination of ranitidine in rabbit plasma by HPLC with fluorescence detection. J Chromatog B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 862 (1-2), 175-180 PubMed.
  • Koutsoviti-Papadopoulou M, Nikolaidis E, Batzias G C et al (2001) Synergistic and antagonistic pharmacodynamic interaction between ranitidine and cisapride: a study on the isolated rabbit intestine. Pharmacol Res 43 (4), 329-334 PubMed.
  • Langer J C & Bramlett G (1997) Effects of prokinetic agents on ileal contractility in a rabbit model of gastroschisis. J Paediatric Surg 32 (4), 605-608 PubMed.
  • Tamura J, Sato N, Ezaki H et al (1983) [Teratological study on ranitidine hydrochloride in rabbits.] J Toxicol Sci (Suppl 1), 141-150 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • GlaxoSmithKline (2009) Zantac (ranitidine hydrochloride) Prescribing Information. Website: http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_zantac_pharmBP.pdf. Last accessed 18th April 2012.
  • Saunders R A & Davies R R (2005) Notes on Rabbit Internal Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1405115148
  • Tennant B (1999) Based on Small Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. Cheltenham, BSAVA.
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