Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Pethidine

Contributor(s): Lesa Thompson

Introduction

Name

  • Pethidine, meperidine.

Class of drug

  • Synthetic opioid analgesic of the phenylpiperidine class.
  • u-opioid receptor agonist, with some activity on k and d receptors.

Description

Chemical name

  • Ethyl 1-methyl-4-phenyl-4-piperidinecarboxylate (IUPAC name).

Molecular formula

  • C15H21NO2.

Molecular weight

  • 247.3364.

Physical properties

  • Fine white crystalline powder.
  • Very soluble in water.
  • pH 3.5-6 in commercial injectable forms.

Storage requirements

  • Tablets and infection should be stored in tightly closed containers protected from light, and not allowed to freeze.
  • Stable at room temperature.
  • Schedule 2 controlled drug in the UK - thus subject to strict storage, prescription, dispensing, destruction and record keeping requirements.

Uses

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Indications

  • A narcotic analgesic which provides prompt but short-term analgesia; onset of action of 10-15 minutes and duration of 2-3 h.
  • Both analgesia and local anesthetic effects. 
  • Less potent than morphine   Morphine  in its analgesic and respiratory depressant effects.

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Other opioids

  • Similar side effects will be additive.

Central nervous system (CNS) depressants (anesthetics, antihistamines, barbiturates, phenothiazines, tranquilizers)

  • Increased CNS or respiratory depression.

Cimetidine

  • The metabolism of pethidine is inhibited thereby increasing plasma concentrations.

with diagnostic tests

Plasma amylase and lipase
  • As narcotic analgesics may increase biliary tract pressure, levels may be increased for up to 24 h after narcotic administration.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Pe_tean Cet al(2013)The effect of chronic toxicity of pethidine on the spinal cord: an experimental model in rabbits.Rom J Morphol Embryol54(3), 617-622PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Egger C M, Love L & Doherty T (2014)Pain Management in Veterinary Practice.Wiley Blackwell, Ames, Iowa.
  • Based onSmall Animal Formulary.Tennant Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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