Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Azithromycin

Contributor(s): Ron Rees Davies

Introduction

Name

  • Azithromycin.

 

Uses

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Indications

  • As broad spectrum antibacterial for consideration when safer alternatives have proved ineffective
  • In situations where penicillins might be considered in other species, but where the severe risks of penicillin use in rabbits prevent their use.
  • To assist in the management of rabbit abscesses, since it is particularly effective against the commonly associated bacteria (Pasteurella  Pasteurella multocida  ,Staphyloccocus  Staphylococcus spp  , anaerobes). 
  • Management of respiratory tract infections.
  • Management of mild to moderate skin and soft tissue infection.
  • Treatment of non-tubercular mycobacterial infections.
  • In man is used as a single dose for treatment of genital chlamydial infections.
  • Active against gram positive cocci (except someStaphylococci), gram positive bacilli, some gram negative bacilli, (such asHaemophilusandPasteurellaspp).
  • Also effective against:
    • Mycobacteria.
    • Anaerobes.
    • Chlamydiaspp.
    • Mycoplasmaspp.
    • Toxoplasmaspp   Toxoplasma gondii  .
  • Some strains ofActinomyes,Nocardia,Chlamydia, andRickettsiaare inhibited by azithromycin.
  • Resistance is exhibited by most strains ofPseudomonasspp,E. coliandKlebsiella.
  • Widely used experimentally in rabbit models of human chlamydial disease, atherosclerosis and osteomyelitis. 

Administration

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Pharmocokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Increases serum levels of:
    • Methylprednisolone    Methylprednisolone  .
    • Theophylline.
    • Terfenadine.
    • Warfarin.
    • Enhances absorption of digoxin.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Tyrell K L, Citron D M, Jenkins J R et al (2002) Periodontal bacteria in rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses. J Clin Microbiol 40 (3), 1044-1047 PubMed.
  • Karcioglu Z A, Ahmed W S, Raines D et al (1999) Pharmacokinetics of azithromycinin in rabbit lacrimal glands and conjunctiva. Ophthalmic Res 31 (1), 47-52 PubMed.
  • Shirtliff M E, Mader J T & Calhoun J (1999) Oral rifampin plus azithromycin or clarithromycin to treat osteomyelitis in rabbits. Clin Orthop Relat Res (359), 229-36 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Small Animal Formulary. Tennant, Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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