Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Atropine

Contributor(s): Jill Pearson, Livia Benato

Introduction

Name

  • Atropine sulfate.

Class of drug

  • Parasympatholytic agent.
  • Plant alkaloid used as an anticholinergic agent.

Description

Chemical name

  • Endo-(+/-)-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester.
  • 1-alpha H,5-alpha H-tropan-3-alpha-ol(+/-)-tropate (ester).

Molecular formula

  • C17H23NO3.

Physical properties

  • Clear, sterile solution

Storage requirements

  • <25°C.
  • Protect from light.

Uses

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Indications

  • Correction of bradycardia and bradyarrhythmias.
  • Correction of hypotension caused by bradycardia.
  • To dilate pupils.
  • Used as antidote to organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.
  • In conjunction with anticholinesterase drugs during antagonism of neuromuscular blockade.

Administration

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Atropine should not be mixed with bromides, iodides, sodium bicarbonate, alkalis or noradrenaline.
  • It is not recommended to combine atropine with alpha-2 agonists.
  • Atropine may aggravate some clinical signs seen with amitraz toxicity, leading to hypertension and gut stasis.

Drugs which may enhance the activity of atropine

  • Antihistamines.
  • Procainamide.
  • Quinidine.
  • Pethidine   Pethidine  .
  • Benzodiazepines.
  • Phenothiazines.

The adverse effects of atropine may be potentiated by

  • Primidone.
  • Disopyramide.
  • Corticosteroids (prolonged use may increase intraocular pressure).

Drugs enhanced by atropine

  • Thiazide diuretics.
  • Sympathomimetics.

Drugs antagonized by atropine

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Olson M E, Vizzutti D, Morck D W et al (1994) The parasympatholytic effects of atropine sulfate and glycopyrrolate in rats and rabbits. Can J Vet Res 58 (4), 254-258 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ramsey I et al (2011) Atropine. In:BSAVA Small Animal Formulary. 7th end. Cheltenham, BSAVA.
  • Pariaut R (2009) Cardiovascular Physiology and Disease of the Rabbit. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 12 (1), 135-144.
  • Johnston M S (2008) Clinical Toxicoses of Domestic Rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 11 (2), 315-326.
  • Lichtenberger M & Ko J (2007) Anaesthesia and Analgesia for Small Mammals and Birds. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 10 (2), 293-315.
  • Carpenter J W (2005) Rabbits. In:Exotic Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. Elsevier Saunders. pp 409-444.
  • Andrew A E (2002) Corneal Disease of Rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract (2), 341-356. 
  • Mason D (1997) Anesthesia, analgesia, and sedation for small mammals. In: Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. Eds: Hillyer E & Quesenberry K. Philadelphia: WB Saunders. pp 378-391.

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