ISSN 2398-2969      

Uterine adenocarcinoma

Clapis

Introduction

  • Cause: spontaneously occurring condition.
  • Signs: hematuria, anemia, firm uterus on palpation.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, ultrasonography, histopathology, exploratory laparotomy.
  • Treatment: ovariohysterectomy.
  • Prognosis: depends if metastasis present or not.
  • This condition is common in entire (intact) does aged 3 years old or more. The condition is potentially fatal due to metastases to the lungs and other organs.
  • The condition has been reported to affect 50-80% of entire females >3 years old.

Print off the Owner factsheets on Common cancersXray and Ultrasound, Neutering - why and when, Uterine problems and Caring for your rabbit before and after surgery to give to your clients.

Presenting signs

  • Intermittent hematuria Urine: hematuria (actually blood passed at the end of urination from vaginal vault), anemia, decreased activity, palpation of a firm, irregular uterus, and cystic mammary glands.
  • Often insidious in clinical history, the patient may present with non-specific signs of weight loss Weight loss, dyspnea Dyspnea, hematuria Urine: hematuria. May also present with gut stasis Gastric dilation and stasis or failure to ingest cecotrophs.
  • The patient may also present with no clinical signs and the uterine abnormality is detected on routine clinical examination Clinical examination or at ovariohysterectomy Ovariohysterectomy.

Geographic incidence

  • None reported.

Other

  • Uterine adenocarcinoma will affect 50-80% of entire does >3 years old (can range greatly from 20% upwards).
  • Experience in practice suggests certain family lines may be over-represented. 

Morbidity

  • May present without clinical signs.

Mortality

  • High rate of metastasis therefore life-threatening without treatment.

Age predisposition

  • Over 2 years of age.

Breed predisposition

  • Dutch Dutch type appears over-represented.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Richardson V (2012) Urogenital diseases in rabbits. In Pract 34 (10), 554-563 VetMedResource.
  • Walter B, Poth T, Böhmer E et al (2010) Uterine disorders in 59 rabbits. Vet Rec 166 (8), 230-233 PubMed.
  • Sommerville L M (1998) Treatment of a uterine adenocarcinoma in a domestic rabbit by ovariohysterectomy. Vet Rec 142 (20), 550-551 PubMed.
  • Hillyer E V (1994) Pet rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 24 (1), 25-65 PubMed.
  • Bray M V, Weir E C, Brownstein D G et al (1992) Endometrial venous aneurysms in three New Zealand white rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 42 (4), 360-362 PubMed.
  • Toft J D (1992) Commonly observed spontaneous neoplasm in rabbits, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters and gerbils. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 1, 180.
  • Garibaldi B A, Fox J D, Otto G et al (1987) Hematuria in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 37 (6), 769-772 PubMed.
  • Baba N & von Haam E (1972) Animal model: spontaneous adenocarcinoma in aged rabbits. Am J Pathol 68 (3), 653-6 PubMed.
  • Fox R R, Meier H, Crary D D et al (1971) Genetic predisposition to tumors in the rabbit. Naturwissenschaften 58 (9), 457 PubMed.
  • Baba N, von Haam E et al (1967) Ultramicroscopic changes in the endometrial cells of spontaneous adenocarcinoma of rabbits. J Natl Cancer Inst 38 (5), 657-672 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Kraus A L, Weisbroth S H, Flatt R E et al (1984) Biology and diseases of Rabbits. In: Laboratory Animal Medicine. Eds: Fox J D, Cohen B J & Loew F M. San Diego Academic Press. pp 207.
  • Weisbroth S H (1974) Neoplastic diseases. In: The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. Eds: Weisbroth S H, Flatt R E & Kraus A L. New York Academic Press. pp 338.

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