Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Urine: urethritis

Contributor(s): Molly Varga, Anna Meredith

Introduction

  • Cause: excess calcium in the urine is strongly associated, however has not been proven to cause this condition; syphilis.
  • Signs: urine scalding, pain on urination.
  • Diagnosis: physical examination, radiography.
  • Treatment: dietary modification, pain relief, antibiosis, fluid therapy.
  • Prognosis: fair, the condition is often managed rather than cured.

Presenting signs

Cost considerations

  • Costs may be significant.
  • Initial diagnostics and treatment.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Animals with high serum calcium levels may have soft tissue calcification, this can affect anesthetic if the heart or great vessels are affected.

Pathogenseis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Clauss M, Burger B, Liesegang A et al (2011) Influence of diet on calcium metabolism, tissue calcification and urinary sludge in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 96 (5), 798-807 PubMed.
  • Goad D L, Pecquet M E & Warren H B (1989) Total serum calcium concentrations in rabbits. JAVMA 194 (11), 1520-1521 PubMed.
  • Garibaldi B A & Goad M E (1988) Hypercalcaemia with secondary nephrolithiasis in a rabbit. Lab Anim Sci 38 (3), 331-333 PubMed.
  • Bourdeau J E, Shwer-Dymerski D A, Stern P H et al (1986) Calcium and phosphorous metabolism in chronically vitamin D-deficient laboratory rabbits. Miner Electrolyte Metab 12 (3), 176-185 PubMed.

Other sources of information


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