Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Urine: urethritis

Contributor(s): Molly Varga

Introduction

  • Cause: excess calcium in the urine is strongly associated, however has not been proven to cause this condition; syphilis.
  • Signs: urine scalding, pain on urination.
  • Diagnosis: physical examination, radiography.
  • Treatment: dietary modification, pain relief, antibiosis, fluid therapy.
  • Prognosis: fair, the condition is often managed rather than cured.

Presenting signs

Cost considerations

  • Costs may be significant.
  • Initial diagnostics and treatment.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Animals with high serum calcium levels may have soft tissue calcification, this can affect anesthetic if the heart or great vessels are affected.

Pathogenseis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Clauss M, Burger B, Liesegang A, Chicca F D, Kaufmann-Bart M, Riond B, Hassig M & Hatt J M (2011)Influence of diet on calcium metabolism, tissue calcification and urinary sludge in rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr96(5), 798-807PubMed.
  • Goad D L, Pecquet M E & Warren H B (1989)Total serum calcium concentrations in rabbits. JAVMA194(11), 1520-1521PubMed.
  • Garibaldi B A & Pecquet Goad M E (1988)Hypercalcaemia with secondary nephrolithiasis in a rabbit. Lab Anim Sci38(3), 331-332PubMed.
  • Bourdeau J E, Shwer-Dymerski D A, Stern P A & Langman C B (1986)Calcium and phosphorous metabolism in chronically vitamin D-deficient laboratory rabbits. Miner Electrolyte Metab12, 176-185PubMed.

Other sources of information


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