ISSN 2398-2969      

Urine: hypercalciuria

Clapis

Introduction

  • Cause: diet high in calcium, dehydration and low water intake. Also, factors that prevent normal urination such as obesity, inflammation and infection of urinary tract, lack of exercise and spondylosis.
  • Signs: creamy thick urine, perineal fur staining, dysuria, abdominal pain, urine scalding.
  • Diagnosis: radiographic examination, ultrasonographic examination, palpation of the bladder, urinalysis.
  • Treatment: flushing of the bladder, supportive treatment and treatment of the cause.
  • Prognosis: generally good. Prognosis can be poor in severe cases when renal failure has been diagnosed.

Presenting signs

  • Creamy thick urine, discomfort, pain, inability to urinate properly, reduce appetite.
  • Hypercalciuria can also be subclinical and diagnosed incidentally.

Acute presentation

  • In severe cases, the rabbit shows discomfort, hunched back, is reluctant to move and presents with dysuria and oliguria.

Age presentation

  • It has been reported that the incidence of hypercalciuria is higher in animals 3-5 years old.

Breed predisposition

  • This problem affects all breeds, however heavy and giant breeds may be more prone to obesity and inactivity → hypercalciuria.

Cost considerations

  • The cost depends on the severity of the case, and will consist of sedation, investigation, medical treatment and hospitalization of the animal.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Risks are generally low and are due to the possibility of renal failure and side effects of anesthesia.

Pathogenesis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Richardson V (2012) Urogenital diseases in rabbits. In Pract 34 (10), 554-563 VetMedResource.
  • Clauss M, Burger B, Liesegang A et al (2011) Influence of diet on calcium metabolism, tissue calcification and urinary sludge in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 96 (5), 798-807 PubMed.
  • Keeble E J (2007) Clinical snapshot. Hypercalciuria and cystic calculi. Comp Cont Educ Vet 29 (6), 326, 328 PubMed.
  • Türkmen M, Kavukçu S, Işlekel H et al (1997) Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in rabbits with experimental hypercalciuria. Pediatr Nephrol 11 (4), 481-484 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mancinelli E & Lord B (2014) Urogenital System and Reproductive Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 191-204.
  • Keeble E & Benato L (2013) Urinary Tract Surgery. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 190-211.
  • Oglesbee B L (2006) Hypercalciuria and Urolithiasis. In: The 5-Minute Veterinary Consultant: Ferret and Rabbit. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp 277-279.
  • Pare J A & Paul-Murphy J (2004) Disorders of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems. Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Saunders. pp 183-193.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code