Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Testis: neoplasia - overview

Synonym(s): Testicular cancer, testicular tumors

Contributor(s): Richard Saunders, Anna Meredith, Sarah Pellett

Introduction

  • Testicular tumors are found rarely in rabbits.
  • Four types of testicular neoplasia have been described in rabbits:
    • Seminomas.
    • Sertoli cell tumors.
    • Interstitial cell tumors (of which Leydig cell tumors are the most common variety).
    • Teratomas.
  • They can be non-functional or hormone secreting (functional).
  • Neoplasms of different tumor types can occur simultaneously in both testes.

Cause

  • Primary testicular neoplasia.

Signs

  • Enlargement of one or both testes; contralateral testis may be small.
  • Change in gait if testicles enlarged.
  • Change in consistency of one or both testes.
  • Behavioral changes may be noted with hormone secreting tumors.
  • Weight loss.
  • Reproductive failure.
  • On rare occasions scrotal skin necrosis and/or gynecomastia.

Diagnosis

  • Clinical signs.
  • Ultrasonography.
  • Histopathological examination.

Treatment

  • Bilateral orchidectomy.
  • If surgery not an option, palliative care.

Prognosis

  • Good to excellent with no lung metastases on thoracic radiography and complete excision.

Presentation

  • Unilateral or bilateral swelling of testes.
  • Change of texture in one or both testes.
  • Change in libido.
  • In some cases, there may be no gross evidence of neoplasia.

Incidence

  • Entire males.
  • Rabbits with undescended testicles present as higher risk.
  • Higher incidence in older rabbits.

Mortality

  • Low.

Cost

  • Low - cost of surgical castration with possible histopathology.

Cause

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prognosis

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Finkelstein A & Cassone L (2007)Testicular interstitial cell neoplasia in a rabbit. Exotic DVM9(3), 15-16. Website:http://www.reptileuvinfo.com/docs/exotic-vet-vol9-3.pdf.
  • Maratea K A et al(2007)Testicular interstitial cell tumour and gynecomastia in a rabbit. Vet Pathol44(4), 513-517PubMed.
  • Capello V (2006)Surgical techniques for orchiectomy of the pet rabbit. Exotic DVM7(5), 23-32 Website:www.exoticdvm.com.
  • Heatley J J & Smith A N (2004)Spontaneous neoplasm of lagomorphs. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract7(3), 561-755PubMed.
  • Marino F, Ferrara G, Rapisarda G & Galofaro V (2003)Reinkes crystals in an interstitial cell tumor of a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Reprod Domest Anim38(5), 421-422PubMed.
  • Roccabianca P, Ghisleni G & Scanziani E (1999)Simultaneous seminoma and interstitial cell tumor in a rabbit with a previous cutaneous basal cell tumour. J Comp Pathol121(1), 95-99PubMed.
  • Anderson W I, Car B D, Kenny K & Schlafer D H (1990)Bilateral testicular seminoma in a New Zealand White Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Lab Anim Sci40(4), 420-421PubMed.
  • Brown P J & Stafford R A (1989)A testicular seminoma in a rabbit. J Comp Pathol100(3), 353-355PubMed.
  • Zwicker G M & Killinger J M (1985)Interstitial cell tumors in a young adult New Zealand White rabbit. Toxicol Pathol13(3), 232-235PubMed.
  • Flatt R E & Weisbroth S H (1974)Interstitial cell tumor of the testicle in rabbits: a report of two cases. Lab Anim Sci24(4), 682-685PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Kaphake E & Paul-Murphy J (2012)Disorders of the Reproductive and Urinary systems.In: Ferrets, Rabbits & Rodents: Clin Med & Surg. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis.
  • Easson W & Veella D (2011)Testicular Tumours.In: Blackwell's Five-Minute Vet Consults: Small Mammal.Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa.
  • Reusch B (2006)Urogenital System and Disorders.In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery.Ed: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 94.
  • Saunders R A & Rees Davies R (2005)Notes on Rabbit Internal Medicine.Blackwell, Oxford. pp 165.
  • Reavill D R & Schmidt R E (2000)Rabbit Surgical Pathology.In: Laboratory Medicine: Avian and Exotic Pets. Ed: Fudge A M.  W B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 356.
  • Ness R D (1998)Neoplasia in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs.In: Proc North Am Vet Conf. pp 853-854.
  • Stein S & Walshaw S (1996) Rabbits.In: Handbook of Rodent and Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Laber-Laird, Swindle & Flecknell P. Elsevier, Oxford. pp 197.
  • Weisbroth S H (1994) The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D A & Newcomer C E.
  • Richardson V C G (2000) The Reproductive System.In: Rabbits: Health, Husbandry and diseases. Blackwell, Oxford. pp 44. Website:http://www.amazon.co.uk/Rabbits-Health-Husbandry-Disease-diseases/dp/063205221X#reader_063205221X.


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