Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Spirochetosis

Synonym(s): Syphilis, Treponematosis, Treponemiasis, Vent disease

Contributor(s): Sandra Wenger, Richard Saunders, Beatrice Funiciello

Introduction

  • Venereal spirochetosis was first described in American rabbits in 1922 by Hideyo Noguchi.
  • CauseTreponema cuniculi or paraluiscuniculi Treponema cuniculi.
  • Signs: skin lesions around perineum and face, beginning with redness and edema, progressing to vesicles, nodules, ulcers, scabs and proliferative lesions. Regional lymph node enlargement.
  • Diagnosis: characteristic clinical signs, microscopic visualization of the organism from skin scrapings on dark field microscopy or biopsies (silver stains), serological tests.
  • Treatment: penicillin G, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines.
  • Prognosis: excellent.

Age predisposition

  • Most common in young animals.
  • Vertical transmission is possible during passage through the birth canal.
  • Occasional disease in adult pet rabbit kept on its own.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcome

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lumeij J T (2013) Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares. Vet Microbiol 164, 190-194 PubMed.
  • Richardson V (2012) Urogenital disease in rabbits. In Pract 34 (10), 554-563 VetMedResource.
  • Sant R & Rowland M (2009) Skin disease in rabbits. In Pract 31 (5), 233-238 VetMedResource.
  • Saito K, Tagawa M, Mimura M et al (2005) Clinical features and rapid plasma reagin antibody titers in spontaneous and experimental rabbit syphilis. J Vet Med Sci 67 (7), 739-741 PubMed.
  • Saito K & Hasegawa A (2004) Clinical features of skin lesions in rabbit syphilis: a retrospective study of 63 cases (1999-2003). J Vet Med Sci 66 (10), 1247-1249 PubMed.
  • Saito K & Hasegawa A (2004) Chloramphenicol treatment for rabbit syphilis. J Vet Med Sci 66 (10), 1301-1304 PubMed.
  • Jenkins (2001) Skin disorders of the rabbit. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 4 (2), 543-563 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2014) Dermatoses. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 255-263.
  • Varga M (2014) Skin Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Elsevier, UK. pp 271-302.
  • Miller W H, Scott D W, Griffin C E & Campbell K L (2013) Dermatoses of Exotic Small Mammals. In: Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology. 7th edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 844-887.
  • Hess L & Tater K (2012) Dermatologic Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 232-244.
  • Meredith A (2006) Dermatoses. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
  • Meredith A (2006) Skin diseases and treatment of Rabbits. In: Skin diseases of Exotic Pets. Ed: Paterson S. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 288-311.
  • Saunders & Davies (2005) Notes on Rabbit Internal Medicine. Blackwell Publishing, UK.
  • Harcourt-Brown (2002) Skin diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Elsevier Science Ltd. 


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