Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Skin: Pseudomonas infection

Synonym(s): Pseudomonas skin infection, Green fur syndrome, Blue fur syndrome

Contributor(s): Molly Varga, Glen Cousquer, Richard Saunders

Introduction

  • CausePseudomonas aeruginosa  Pseudomonads  - a common pathogen in rabbit dermatitis cases.
  • Especially common in intensively farmed rabbits.
  • Associated with moist dermatitis of the dewlap   Moist dermatitis      Dewlap: conditions and treatment  .
  • Signs: discoloration of fur.
  • Diagnosis: history and clinical signs.
  • Treatment: clip fur, topical/systemic antibiotics
  • Prognosis: good.

Presenting signs

  • The infection is characterized by a blue green discoloration of the fur.
  • It is typically seen in rabbits with exudative moist dermatitis   Moist dermatitis  .

Acute presentation

Geographic incidence

  • Areas of high humidity may show a greater incidence of pseudomonas skin infections.
  • Areas where chlorinated water is unavailable may show an increased incidence of the condition.

Age predisposition

  • Older rabbits may show a predisposition as they are more likely to develop characteristics (obesity, pendulous skin folds) that predispose them to moist dermatitis   Moist dermatitis  .

Sex predisposition

Breed predisposition

Public health considerations

  •  P. aeruginosa  Pseudomonads   was detected on the hands of animal researchers and caretakers after they finished their work. The same serotype of P. aeruginosawas also found in the animals and the environment.
  • These findings demonstrate that the animal researchers and caretakers were contaminated with P. aeruginosaby the animals, and then became infective vehicles.
  • Basic hygiene measures are advised such as the use of impervious gloves and effective hand washing in suitable skin disinfectants after handling affected rabbits.

Cost considerations

  • Water supplies are likely to require purification.
  • Investment in water treatment facilities is advisable on rabbit farms.
  • Surgical ablation of skin folds may be indicated.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • No specific risks.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hussein M Z & Amara A A (2006) Case-by-case study using antibiotic-EDTA combination to control pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pak J Pharm Sci 19 (3), 236-243 PubMed.
  • Urano T, Noguchi K, Jiang G et al (1995) Survey of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination in human beings and laboratory animals. Exp Anim 44 (3), 233-239 PubMed.
  • Homberger F R, Pataki Z & Thomann P E (1993) Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice by chlorine treatment of drinking water. Lab Anim Sci 43 (6), 635-637 PubMed.
  • Garibaldi B A, Fox J G & Musto D R (1990) Atypical moist dermatitis in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 40 (6), 652-653 PubMed.
  • Komzolova N B & Kalina G P (1986) [Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water. Its hygiene and epidemiology.] Gig Sanit (2), 57-61 PubMed.
  • Bergan T (1981) Pathogenetic factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 29, 7-12 PubMed.
  • Schoenbaum M (1981) Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rabbit fur. Lab Anim 15 (1), 5 PubMed.
  • Wellisch G, Cohen E, Cahane Z et al (1980) Distribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes in Israel. Microbiol Immunol 24 (3), 233-235 PubMed.
  • Williams C S & Gibson R B (1975) Sore dewlap: Pseudomonas aeruginosa on rabbit fur and skin. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 70 (8), 954-955 PubMed.
  • O'Donoghue P N, Whatley B F (1971) Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rabbit fur. Lab Anim (2), 251-255 PubMed.
  • Lusis P I & Soltys M A (1971) Pseudomonas infections in man and animals. JAVMA 159 (4), 416 PubMed.
  • Lusis P I & Soltys M A (1971) Immunization of mice and chinchillas against Pseudomona aeruginosa. Can J Comp Med 35 (1), 60-66 PubMed.
  • McDonald R A & Pinheiro A F (1967) Water chlorination controls Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rabbitry. JAVMA 151 (7), 863-864 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith, A (2006) Skin diseases and Treatment of Rabbits. In: Skin diseases of Exotic Pets. Ed: Paterson S. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. Chapter 23. pp 288-311.
  • Scott D W, Miller W H & Griffin C E (1995) Dermatoses of pet rodents, rabbits and ferrets. In: Muller & Kirks Small Animal Dermatology. 5th edn. W B Saunders, Philadelphia, USA. pp 1127-1174.
  • Delong D & Manning P J (1994) Bacterial diseases. In: Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd edn. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D H, Newcomer C E. Academic Press, San Diego, USA. pp 131-170.
  • Fick R B (1993) Pseudomonas aeruginosa the Opportunist: Pathogenesis and Disease. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA.


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