Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Skin: exfoliative dermatitis

Contributor(s): Alana Shrubsole-Cockwill, Vicki Baldrey

Introduction

  • Cause: it has recently been reported as a paraneoplastic syndrome in association with thymic neoplasia.
  • Signs: widespread scaling of the skin with progressive alopecia. Mild pruritus and erythema may be present in some cases.
  • Diagnosis: a full diagnostic work up is indicated to identify any underlying disease.
  • Treatment: anti-seborrheic shampoos, topical propylene glycol, oral essential fatty acid supplementation, oral cyclosporine, surgery in cases of thymic masses.
  • Prognosis: dependent on underlying cause.

Geographic incidence

  • Reported in Europe but potentially worldwide.

Age predisposition

  • Most commonly seen in older pets (4-8 years), although has been reported in younger animals.

Cost considerations

  • Diagnosis of underlying disease that may require blood tests, radiography, ultrasonography and biopsies, all of which can be costly.
  • Treatment of underlying disease such as surgical excision of a thymic mass may potentially be expensive.
  • Alternatively supportive treatment such as cyclosporine therapy may be required for several months.

Special risks

  • Removal of an underlying thymic mass may involve a long anesthetic and a technically challenging surgery with the associated risk of anesthetic and surgical complications.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rostaher Prelaud A et al (2013) Presumptive paraneoplastic exfoliative dermatitis in four domestic rabbits. Vet Rec 172 (6), 155 PubMed.
  • Kovalik M, Thoday K L, Eatwell K & van den Broek A H M (2012) Successful treatment of idiopathic sebaceous adenitis in a lionhead rabbit.  J Exotic Pet Med 21 (4), 336-342 VetMedResource.
  • Jassies-van der Lee A, van Zeeland Y, Kik M & Schoemaker N (2009) Successful treatment of sebaceous adenitis in a rabbit with ciclosporin and triglycerides. Vet Derm 20 (1), 67-71 PubMed.
  • Florizoone K, van der Luer R & van den Ingh T (2007) Symmetrical alopecia, scaling and hepatitis in a rabbit. Vet Derm 18 (3), 161-164 PubMed.
  • Florizoone K (2005) Thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis in a rabbit. Vet Derm 16 (4), 281-284 PubMed.
  • Morrisey J (2005) Therapeutic options for thymoma in a rabbit. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 14 (3), 175-181 VetMedResource.
  • Rottenberg S, von Tscharner C & Roosje P J (2004) Thymoma associated exfoliative dermatitis in cats. Vet Pathol 41, 429-433 PubMed.
  • White S D et al (2000) Lymphoma with cutaneous involvement in three domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Derm 11 (1), 61-67 VetMedResource.
  • White S D et al (2000) Sebaceous adenitis in four domestic rabbits. Vet Derm 11 (1), 53-60.
  • Clippinger T L et al (1998) Removal of a thymoma via median sternotomy in a rabbit with recurrent appendicular neurofibrosarcoma.  JAVMA 213 (98), 1140-1143 PubMed.
  • Vernau K M, Grahn B H, Clarke-Scott H A & Sullivan N (1995) Thymoma in a geriatric rabbit with hypercalcemia and periodic exophthalmos.  JAVMA 206 (11), 1675-1677 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Meredith A (2014) Dermatoses. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 255-263.
  • Lewis W (2013) Mediastinal Masses and other Thoracic Surgery. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 257-268.
  • Hess L & Tater K (2012) Dermatologic Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Saunders, USA. pp 232-244.


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