Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Radiology: abdomen

Contributor(s): Lesa Thompson, Fraser McConnell, Anna Meredith, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • In the rabbit abdominal radiography is primarily used for the assessment of:
  • Abdominal radiography is frequently performed in rabbits in the investigation of common signs/findings such as anorexia, decreased defecation, disorders of urination and palpation of abnormal masses in the abdomen.
  • Exposure factors and positioning for the rabbit are similar to those for soft tissue examinations in the cat.
  • The relative lack of fat within the abdomen of some rabbits can hinder the evaluation of abdominal organs .

Technique

  • The abdomen of calm rabbits can be radiographed without the need for sedation or general anesthesia. Use sand bags, dim the light of the room, reduce noise, and use gentle handling.
  • If the rabbit is too nervous to allow conscious, restrain, consider sedation Sedation with midazolam Midazolam.
  • General anesthesia Anesthesia: overview is rarely required to take radiographs, unless specific individuals or situations. As the level of consciousness decreases, positioning quality increases.
  • Detail cassettes and films should be used, with as small a focal spot as possible. Use digital radiography if available Radiography: digital.
  • A table-top technique and low kV/high mAS should be used.
  • Orthogonal projections (two views) mandatory as in any other situation.

Normal anatomy

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Gastrointestinal tract

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Liver

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Urinary tract

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Genital tract

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Banzato T, Bellini L, Contiero B et al (2014) Abdominal ultrasound features and reference values in 21 healthy rabbits. Vet Rec 176 (4), 101 PubMed
  • Porzio P, Pharr J W & Allen A L (2001) Excretory urography by intraosseous injection of contrast media in a rabbit model. Vet Radiol & Ultrasound 42 (3), 238-243 PubMed.
  • Redrobe S (2001) Imaging techniques in small mammals. Semin Avian & Exotic Pet Med 10 (4), 187-197 ScienceDirect.
  • Sommerville L M (1998) Treatment of a uterine carcinoma in a domestic rabbit by ovariohysterectomy. Vet Rec 142 (20), 550-551 PubMed.
  • Johnson J H & Wolf A M (1993) Ovarian abscesses and pyometra in a domestic rabbit. JAVMA 203 (5), 667-669 PubMed.
  • Gillet N A, Brooks D L & Tillman P C (1983) Medical and surgical management of gastric obstruction from a hairball in a rabbit. JAVMA 183 (11), 1176-1178 PubMed.
  • Gibbs C & Hinton M H (1981) Radiological examination of the rabbit 1. The head, thorax and vertebral column. JSAP 22 (11), 687-703 PubMed.
  • Pickard D W & Stevens C E (1972) Digesta flow through the rabbit large intestine. Am J Physiol 222 (5), 1161-1166 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Klaphake E & Paul-Murphy J (2012) Disorders of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K & Carpenter J. Elsevier Saunders. pp 217-231.
  • Ackerman N, Hager D A & Kaude J V (1989) Ultrasound appearance and early detection of Vx2 carcinoma in the rabbit kidney. Published for The College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Journal Series No. 145. pp 88-96.


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