ISSN 2398-2969      

Pyometra

Clapis

Synonym(s): Infected uterus, purulent endometritis, purulent metritis, pus in the womb


Introduction

  • This condition may be associated with recent mating or parturition.
  • Cause: infection introduced at mating, but hematogenous route also possible.
  • Signs: vaginal discharge, reduced appetite, weight loss, abdominal distension, none.
  • Diagnosis: abdominal palpation, imaging, cytology of vaginal discharge.
  • Treatment: supportive care, usually surgical treatment (ovariohysterectomy).
  • Prognosis: good with timely, appropriate treatment.

Print off the Owner factsheets Xray and UltrasoundNeutering - why and when, Uterine problems and Caring for your rabbit before and after surgery to give to your client.

Presenting signs

  • Hematuria.
  • Vaginal discharge.
  • Abdominal enlargement.
  • Depression.
  • Reduced appetite.
  • Polydipsia and polyuria may be noted.
  • Increased aggression.
  • Clinical signs similar to pseudopregnancy Pseudopregnancy such as nesting behavior.
  • Hindlimb paralysis has been reported in a case.
  • In cases of mild severity, it is possible that the rabbit doesn't present with obvious clinical signs.

Acute presentation

  • Depression.
  • Collapse.
  • Abdominal enlargement.
  • Shock.

Age predisposition

  • Highest incidence in rabbits older than 3-4 years.

Sex predisposition

  • Entire females.

Breed predisposition

  • All breeds.

Cost considerations

  • Surgical treatment.

Special risks

  • Septicemia.
  • Abdominal contamination in case of uterine breakdown.
  • Anesthesia.
  • Shock.

Mortality

  • Up to 100% without treatment.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • von Degerfeld MM, Banchi P & Quaranta G (2020) Successful treatment of pyometra caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a rabbit. Top Companion Anim Med 41,100473 PubMed.
  • Richardson V (2012) Urogenital diseases in rabbits. In Pract 34 (10), 554-563 VetMedResource.
  • Walter B, Poth T, Böhmer E et al (2010) Uterine disorders in 59 rabbits. Vet Rec 166 (8), 230-233 PubMed.
  • Peters M & Scheele G (1996) [Listeriosis in a rabbitry.Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr​ 103 (11), 460-462 PubMed.
  • Hillyer E V (1994) Pet rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 24 (1), 25-65 PubMed.
  • Johnson J H & Wolf A M (1993) Ovarian abscesses and pyometra in a domestic rabbit. JAVMA 203 (5), 667-669 PubMed.
  • Hobbs B A & Parker R F (1990) Uterine torsion associated with either hydrometra or endometritis in two rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 40 (5), 535-536 PubMed.
  • Morrell J M (1989) Hydrometra in the rabbit. Vet Rec 125 (12), 325 PubMed.
  • Hofmann J R Jr & Hixson C J (1986) Amyloid A protein deposits in a rabbit with pyometra. JAVMA 189 (9), 1155-1156 PubMed.
  • Soave O A, Dominguez J, Doak R L (1977) Moraxella bovis-induced metritis and septicemia in a rabbit. JAVMA 171 (9), 972-973 PubMed.
  • Hawk W & Conley H H (1976) Intensification by glucocorticoids of induced acute leukocytic responses in the rabbit uterus. Am J Vet Res 37 (12), 1445-1448 PubMed.
  • Ershova A S (1968) [Treatment of rabbits in listerial metritis.] Veterinariia 45 (10), 95-96 PubMed.
  • Rittenbach P (1966) [Contribution to experimental listeriosis in domestic and experimental animals. XI. Studies of experimentally produced metrogenic listeriosis in rabbits.] Arch Exp Veterinarmed 20 (1), 49-83 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Oglesbee B L (2011) Pyometra and Non-Neoplastic Endometrial Disorders. In: Blackwell's Five Minute Consult: Small Mammal. 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell. pp 497-499. ISBN: 978-0813820187.
  • Virag G et al (2004) Characterization of Pasteurella Multocida Recovered from Live Rabbits at a Small-Scale Farm Previously Manifesting Deaths by Phyothorax and Pyometra. In: Proc 8th World Rabbit Congress. pp 673-680. Website: www.world-rabbit-science.com.

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