ISSN 2398-2969      

Oxyuriasis

Clapis

Synonym(s): Pinworm infestation


Introduction

  • Passalurus is an extremely common oxyurid pinworm in both wild and captive rabbit populations.
  • Even in extremely large numbers the worm is not usually pathogenic as it feeds only on intestinal contents and may be beneficial in helping to break down ingested fibrous plant material.
  • Cause: occasional cases of granuloma formation associated with worms are reported.
  • Irritation around the anal area may cause pruritus, self-trauma and rectal prolapse.
  • High burdens of Passalurus may play a role (along with factors such as diet, coccidial infections, coliform infections and stress) in the enteritis complex seen around weaning.
  • Signs: usually none.
  • Diagnosis: fecal microscopy.
  • Treatment: prophylactic treatment against Passalurus is not warranted.
  • Fenbendazole and piperazine are effective against the worm, although prolonged courses may be needed to completely eradicate the worm due to reinfection through cecotrophy and coprophagy. Ivermectin is not effective.
  • Prognosis: usually excellent.

Print off the Owner factsheet on Faecal testing to give to your clients.

Presenting signs

  • Usually none, Passalurus is a normal inhabitant of the rabbit GI tract.
  • Potentially a contributory factor in enteritis Enteritis / enteropathy and diarrhea seen around weaning.
  • May cause anal irritation, self-trauma and rectal prolapse.

Geographic incidence

  • Worldwide: reported in wild, domestic and laboratory rabbits.

Age predisposition

  • Present at all ages.
  • High burdens of Passalurus may play a role (along with factors such as diet, coccidial infections Coccidiosis, coliform infections Colibacillosis and stress) in the enteritis Enteritis / enteropathy complex seen around weaning.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Abdel-Gaber R, Ataya F, Fouad D, Daoud M & Alzuhairy (2019) Prevalence, morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses of the rabbit pinworm, passalurus ambigus Rudolphi 1819, in the domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Acta Parasitol 64, 316-330 PubMed.
  • Ilic T, stepanovic P, Nenadovic K & Dimitrijevic S (2018) Improving agricultural production of domestic rabbits in Serbia by follow-up study of their parasitic infections. Iran J Vet Res 19 (4), 290-297 PubMed.
  • Raue K, Heuer L, Bohm C, Wolken S, Epe C & Strube C (2017) 10-year parasitological examination results (2003 to 2012) of faecal samples from horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits and hedgehogs. Parasitol Res 116 (12), 3315-3330 PubMed.
  • Kornas S, Kowal J et al (2015) The Alice – ‘Follow the White Rabbit’ – parasites of farm rabbits based on coproscopy. Ann Parasitol 61 (4), 257-261 PubMed.
  • Sayers I (2010) Approach to preventative health care and welfare in rabbits. In Pract 32 (5), 190-198 VetMedResource.
  • Rinaldi L, Russo T, Schioppi M et al (2007) Passalurus ambiguus: new insights into copromicroscopic diagnosis and circadian rhythm of egg excretion. Parasitol Res 101 (3), 557-561 PubMed.
  • Hobbs R P, Twigg L E, Elliot A D et al (1999) Factors influencing the fecal egg and oocyst counts of parasites of wild European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus in southern Western Australia. J Parasitol 85 (5), 796-802 PubMed.
  • Morrisey J K (1996) Parasites of ferrets, rabbits and rodents. Seminars in Avian & Exotic Pet Medicine (2), 106-114 ScienceDirect
  • Boag B (1988) Observations on the seasonal incidence of myxomatosis and its interactions with helminth parasites in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Wildlife Dis 24 (3), 450-455 PubMed.
  • Düwel D & Brech K (1981) Control of oxyuriasis in rabbits by fenbendazole. Lab Anim 15 (2), 101-105 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Oglesbee B L & Lord B (2021) Gastrointestinal Diseases of Rabbits. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 4th edn. Eds: Queensberry K E, Orcutt CJ, Mans C & Carpenter JW, Elsevier, USA. pp 174-187.
  • Schoeb T R, Cartner S C et al (2007) Parasites of Rabbits. In: Flynns Parasites of Laboratory Animals. 2nd edn. Ed: Baker D G. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 467.
  • Meredith A (2006) Dermatoses. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, UK. pp 129-136.
  • Rees Davies R (2006) Digestive System Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, UK. pp 74-84. 
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Infectious Diseases of Domestic Rabbits. In: Textbook of Veterinary Medicine. Butterworth-Heinemann, UK. pp 363.
  • Patton S (2000) Rabbit and Ferret Parasite Testing. In: Laboratory Medicine: Avian and Exotic Pets. Ed: Fudge A M. W B Saunders Company, USA. pp 362.
  • Hofing F L & Kraus A L (1994) Arthropod and Helminth Parasites. In: The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd edn. Academic Press Inc, USA. pp 246-247.

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