Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Oral papillomatosis

Contributor(s): Lesa Thompson, Glen Cousquer, Anna Meredith

Introduction

  • Cause: oral papillomatosis is caused by a papilloma virus that is antigenically distinct from the Shope Papilloma virus   Papilloma virus  .
  • Signs: usually none, sometimes signs of oral discomfort.
  • Diagnosis: often clinical appearance alone.
  • Treatment: none required in most cases.
  • Prognosis: good, since most lesions spontaneously regress.

Presenting signs

  • Small papillomas (usually 1-2 mm diameter) in the oral cavity, often on the ventral aspect of the tongue.
  • One report describes lesions up to 10 mm diameter behind the mandibular incisors.
  • Other clinical signs are usually not apparent, and lesions are detected incidentally or at post mortem examination   Post-mortem technique  .

Geographic incidence

  • Reported in North and South America, The Netherlands and Great Britain.

Age predisposition

  • Infection occurs most frequently in rabbits between 2 months and 2 years of age.

Breed predisposition

  • Reported in British and New Zealand White rabbits   New Zealand White  .
  • Cottontail ( Sylvilagusspp) rabbits   Cottontail   are susceptible.

Cost considerations

  • Inexpensive: lesions do not usually cause clinical signs, and treatment or removal is not indicated.
  • Moderate cost if surgical removal is necessary.

Special risks

  • Large papillomas may possibly interfere with intubation, or become traumatized and hemorrhage during dental procedures.

Pathogenesis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Sequelae

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Maglennon G A, McIntosh P & Doorbar J (2011)Persistence of viral DNA in the epithelial basal layer suggests a model for papillomavirus latency following immune regression. Virology414(2), 153-163PubMed.
  • Maglennon G A & Doorbar J (2012) The biology of papillomavirus latency. Open Virol6, 190-197PubMed.
  • Gambhira R et al(2007)Protection of rabbits against challenge with rabbit papillomaviruses by immunization with the N. terminusof human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid antigen L2. J Virol81(21), 11585-11592PubMed.
  • Krogstad A R, Simpson J E & Korte S W (2005) Viral diseases of rabbitsVet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract8(1), 123-138PubMed.
  • Sundberg J P & Everitt J I (1986)Diagnostic exercise: lingual growths in rabbitsLab Anim Sci36, 499-500PubMed.
  • Sundberg J P et al(1985)Oral papillomatosis in New Zealand white rabbitsAm J Vet Res46, 664-668PubMed.
  • Dominguez J A et al(1981)Oral papillomatosis in laboratory rabbits in MexicoLab Anim Sci31, 71-73PubMed.
  • Weisbroth S H (1975)Sialocele (ranula) simulating oral papillomatosis in a domestic ( oryctolagus) rabbitLab Anim Sci25(3), 321-322PubMed.
  • Mews A R et al(1972)Detection of oral papillomatosis in a British rabbit colonyLab Anim6, 141-145PubMed.
  • Weisbroth S H & Scher S (1970)Spontaneous oral papillomatosis in rabbitsJAVMA157, 1940-1944PubMed.
  • Rdzok E J et al(1966)Rabbit oral papillomatosis - ultrastructure of experimental infectionCancer Res26, 160-165PubMed.
  • Richter W R et al(1964)Oral papillomatosis of the rabbit: An electron microscopic studyLab Invest13, 430-438PubMed.
  • Parsons R J & Kidd J G (1943)Oral papillomatosis of rabbits: a virus diseaseJ Exp Med77, 233-250.


ADDED