Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Neurology: Horner's syndrome

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, Vicki Baldrey

Introduction

  • Horner's syndrome describes a collection of autonomic clinical signs arising as a result of the interruption of the sympathetic pathway between the hindbrain and the target organs in the head.
  • Cause: variable; damage within brain/spinal cord or to cervical sympathetic trunk; associated with otitis media.
  • Signs: ocular conditions, eg miosis, ptosis; facial nerve paralysis; hemiplegia.
  • Diagnosis: neurological examination.
  • Treatment: depends on underlying cause.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying cause.

Presenting signs

  • Miosis.
  • Ptosis.
  • Enophthalmos.
  • Protrusion of the third eyelid.
  • Conjunctival flare.
  • Symptoms arising as a result of the underlying pathological process.

Cost considerations

  • A diagnostic evaluation of the rabbit presenting with Horner's syndrome is likely to include radiographic imaging techniques.
  • Full evaluation may not be possible without recourse to a CT or MRI.

Special risks

  • Standard anesthetic risks.
  • Risks associated with surgery to treat otitis media Otitis media / interna, eg life-threatening hemorrhage, vestibular dysfunction, Horner's syndrome, hypoglossal nerve palsy and facial nerve paralysis are all potential complications of bulla osteotomy Bulla osteotomy in the rabbit.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Neer T M (1984) Horners syndrome: anatomy, diagnosis and causes. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 6 (6), 740-746.
  • Skarf B & Czarnecki J S (1982) Distinguishing preganglionic from postganglionic lesions. Studies in rabbits with surgically produced Horner's syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 100 (8), 1319-1322 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Knott T (2014) Ophthalmology. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 232-254.


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