Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Lung: adiaspiromycosis

Contributor(s): Lesa Thompson, Sarah Pellett

Introduction

  • A pulmonary disease of small mammals, mainly rodents and mustelids.
  • Experimentally, rabbits have been affected.
  • Occasionally affects humans.
  • Cause: infection by dimorphic fungi belonging to genus Emmonsia crescens, now renamed Chrysosporium parvumvar  crescensfound ubiquitous in the environment in Europe. Emmonsia parva, now renamed Chrysosporium parvum var  parvumis found in the Americas, central Asia and Africa.
  • Signs: rarely of clinical significance. In advanced cases progressive dyspnea, coughing and respiratory failure.
  • Diagnosis: definitive diagnosis based on post mortem examination and histopathology examination.
  • Treatment: triazole antifungal use (fluconazole, itraconazole) reported in other species. Amphotericin B use reported in other species.

Presenting signs

  • Anorexia.
  • Weight loss.
  • Depression.
  • Coughing.
  • Dyspnea.

Acute presentation

  • Dyspnea.
  • Cyanosis.

Public health considerations

  •  C. parvumvar crescens can affect humans, causing dyspnea, a non-productive cough, pleuritic chest pain and weight loss. It is not a zoonosis, humans become infected by inhalation of spores.
  •  C. parvumvar crescens is ubiquitous in the environment.

Pathophysiology

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Anstead G M, Sutton D A & Graybill J R (2012) Adiaspiromycosis causing respiratory failure and a review of human infections due to Emmonsia and Chrysosporium spp. J Clin Microbiol 50 (4), 1346-1354 PubMed.
  • Pusterla N, Pesavento P A, Leutenegger C M et al (2002) Disseminated pulmonary adiaspiromycosis caused by Emmonsia crescens in a horse. Equine Vet J 34 (7), 749-752 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Carpenter J W (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier, St Louis.
  • Cafarchia C (2012) Other Fungal Infections. In: Infectious diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe. Eds: Gavier-Widen D, Duff P & Meredith A. pp 466-467. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford.
  • Meredith A & Keeble E (2011) Wildlife Medicine and Rehabilitation.  Manson Publishing, London.


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