ISSN 2398-2969      

Lung: adiaspiromycosis

Clapis

Introduction

  • A pulmonary disease of small mammals, mainly rodents and mustelids.
  • Experimentally, rabbits have been affected.
  • Has been documented in a wild European rabbit.
  • Occasionally affects humans.
  • Cause: infection by dimorphic fungi belonging to genus Emmonsia crescens, now renamed Chrysosporium parvum var crescens found ubiquitous in the environment in Europe. Emmonsia parva, now renamed Chrysosporium parvum var parvum is found in the Americas, central Asia and Africa. Jiang et al (2020) suggest that two Emmonsia species are reclassified in Emergomyces.
  • Signs: rarely of clinical significance. In advanced cases progressive dyspnea, coughing and respiratory failure.
  • Diagnosis: definitive diagnosis based on post-mortem examination and histopathology examination.
  • Treatment: triazole antifungal use (fluconazole, itraconazole) reported in other species. Amphotericin B use reported in other species.

Presenting signs

Acute presentation

  • Dyspnea.
  • Cyanosis.

Public health considerations

  •  C. parvum var crescens can affect humans, causing dyspnea, a non-productive cough, pleuritic chest pain and weight loss. It is not a zoonosis, humans become infected by inhalation of spores.
  •  C. parvum var crescens is ubiquitous in the environment.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Jiang Y, Tsui C K M, Ahmed S A et al (2020) Intraspecific diversity and taxonomy of emmonsia crescens. Mycopathologia 185, 613–627 PubMed.
  • Hughes K & Borman A M (2018) Adiaspiromycosis in a wild European rabbit, and review of the literature. J Vet Diagn Invest 30 (4), 614-618 PubMed.
  • Anstead G M, Sutton D A & Graybill J R (2012) Adiaspiromycosis causing respiratory failure and a review of human infections due to Emmonsia and Chrysosporium spp. J Clin Microbiol 50 (4), 1346-1354 PubMed.
  • Pusterla N, Pesavento P A, Leutenegger C M et al (2002) Disseminated pulmonary adiaspiromycosis caused by emmonsia crescens in a horse. Equine Vet J 34 (7), 749-752 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Delaney M A, Treuting P M & Rothenburger J L (2018) Rodentia. In: Pathology of Wildlife and Zoo Animals. Eds: Terio KA, McAloose D & St. Leger J. Academic Press, UK. pp 499-515.
  • Carpenter J W (2013) Exotic Animal Formulary. 4th edn. Elsevier, USA.
  • Cafarchia C (2012) Other Fungal Infections. In: Infectious diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe. Eds: Gavier-Widen D, Duff P & Meredith A. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK. pp 466-467.
  • Meredith A & Keeble E (2011) Wildlife Medicine and Rehabilitation. Manson Publishing, UK.

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