Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Kidney: renal failure

Synonym(s): Kidney failure

Contributor(s): Ron Rees Davies, Livia Benato, Anna Meredith, Sarah Pellett

Introduction

  • Cause: hereditary or congenital (polycystic kidney syndrome, renal cysts, renal agenesis):
    • Metabolic: hypercalcemia.
    • Inflammatory or infectious: Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp, amyloidosis, renal fibrosis, focal interstitial fibrosis.
    • Neoplasia: benign embryonal nephroma, nephroblastoma, renal carcinoma, renal adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, metastatic such as squamous cell carcinoma.
    • Toxic: potentially nephrotoxic antimicrobials such as aminoglycosides. Other potential nephrotoxins such as ethylene glycol).
    • Vascular: systemic hypotension, renal hypertension, renal infarction.
  • Signs: varies depending on cause. From non-specific (anorexia, lethargy, gastrointestinal stasis, bruxism), normal urine production - oliguria (acute renal failure), polyuria/polydipsia (chronic renal failure), weight loss, occasionally hematuria.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical examination, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, urinary protein and creatine ratio, E. cuniculi serology, imaging.
  • Treatment: supportive care and treat underlying issues.
  • Prognosis: acute renal failure is rapidly fatal if untreated, and often despite treatment. Chronic renal failure carries a poor prognosis. Symptomatic treatment may prolong life.
  • Renal failure is a functional impairment of glomerular filtration and can be acute or chronic.
  • Renal failure can be pre-renal (decreased perfusion of the kidneys), intrarenal (renal disease) or post-renal (disease of the renal pelvis or beyond) in origin.
  • Renal failure is the end stage of many rabbit disease conditions.

Presenting signs

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Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dong Y, Wang W P, Cao J Y et al (2012) Quantitative evaluation of acute renal failure in rabbits with contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Chin Med J 125 (4), 652-656 PubMed.
  • Mancinelli E, Shaw D J & Meredith A L (2012) y-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in the urine of clinically healthy domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Rec 171 (19), 475 PubMed.
  • Zhao Z G, Niu C Y, Zhang Y P et al (2011) The mechanism of spleen injury in rabbits with acute renal failure. Ren Fail 33 (4), 418-425 PubMed.
  • Fisher P G (2006) Exotic mammal renal disease: causes and clinical presentation. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract (1), 33-67 PubMed.
  • Fisher P G (2006) Exotic mammal renal disease: diagnosis and treatment. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 9 (1), 69-96 PubMed.
  • Kim S Y, Ham S C, Yoo H J et al (1998) Beneficial effect of verapamil against ischemic acute renal failure in rabbits. Korean J Nephrol 17 (4), 533-544 KoreaMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mancinelli E & Lord B (2014) Urogenital System and Reproductive Disease. In: BSAVA Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 191-204.
  • Oglesbee B (2011) Renal Failure. In: Blackwell’s Five minute Veterinary Consult: Small Mammal. 2nd edn. Ed: Oglesbee B L. Wiley Blackwell, UK. pp 506-508.
  • Lichtenberger M (2008) Acute Renal Failure in Rabbits. In: Proc 51st BSAVA Annual Congress. pp 167-168.
  • Pare J A & Paul-Murphy J (2004) Disorders of the Reproductive and Urinary System. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. W B Saunders Co, USA. pp 183-193.
  • Girling S (2003) Preliminary study into the possible use of benazepril in the management of renal disease in rabbits. In: Proc Autumn BVZS Meeting. Edinburgh Zoo, Edinburgh, UK. pp 44.
  • Harcourt Brown F (2002) Urogenital diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine.Butterworth-Heinemann, UK. pp 335-351.
  • Hoefer H L (2000) Rabbit and Ferret Renal Disease Diagnosis. In: Laboratory Medicine: Avian and Exotic Pets.Ed: Fudge A M. W B Saunders Co, USA. pp 311-318.


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