Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Kidney: nephrolithiasis - ureterolithiasis

Contributor(s): Lesa Thompson, Lesa Longley, Richard Saunders, Allan Muir

Introduction

  • Ureterolithiasis is the presence of urinary calculi in one or both ureters.
  • It is commonly associated with nephrolithiasis, the presence of calculi in the kidney.

Presenting signs

  • Signs of abdominal pain, eg bruxism, hunched posture.
  • Reduced appetitie.
  • Weight loss.
  • Intermittent gastrointestinal stasis.
  • Polydipsia/polyuria.
  • Urinary incontinence +/- dysuria +/- hematuria.
  • Possible urine scald.
  • Straining when passing urine.

Acute presentation

  • As above.

Geographic incidence

  • None known.

Age predisposition

  • Adults are more commonly affected.

Sex predisposition

  • None.

Breed predisposition

  • None known.

Public health considerations

  • None.

Cost considerations

  • Investigation of upper urinary tract obstruction requires radiography Radiography: abdomen, ultrasonography, often using contrast techniques; these may be complex and expensive.
  • Surgery may also be quite complex, involving ureteral or renal removal of calculi, or possibly nephrectomy.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • The use of ketamine Ketamine should be considered with caution in animals with complete urinary tract obstruction Urinary tract obstruction due to the renal clearance of this drug.
  • Renal function may be impaired by ureteral obstruction and so should be fully assessed before anesthesia Anesthesia: overview.
  • Kidney removal should not be contemplated without ensuring that residual renal function is sufficient, ie full hematology and biochemistry, imaging including ultrasonography of the other kidney, and urinalysis including cytology and cultre.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • White R N (2001) Management of calcium ureteorolithiasis in a French Lop rabbit. JSAP 42 (12), 595-598 PubMed.
  • Lee K J, Johnson W D, Lang C M et al (1978) Hydronephrosis caused by urinary lithiasis in a New Zealand White rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Pathol 15 (5), 676-678 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Keeble E & Benato L (2014) Urinary Tract Surgery. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp190-211.
  • Mancinelli E & Lord B (2014) Urogenital System and Reproductive Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp191-204.
  • Pare J A & Paul-Murphy J (2004) Disorders of the Reproductive and Urinary Systems. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Saunders, USA. pp 183-193.
  • Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W (2004) Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Saunders, USA. pp 183-193.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Urogenital diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth-Heinemann, UK. pp 335-351.
  • Hoefer H L (2000) Rabbit and Ferret Renal Disease Diagnosis. In: Laboratory Medicine: Avian and Exotic Pets. Ed: Fudge A M. W B Saunders, USA. pp 311-318.
  • Reavill D R & Schmidt R E (2000) Rabbit Surgical Pathology. In: Laboratory Medicine: Avian and Exotic Pets. Ed: Fudge A M. W B Saunders, USA. pp 353-357.


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