ISSN 2398-2969      

Hypovitaminosis E

Clapis
Contributor(s):

Molly Varga

Anna Meredith

Synonym(s): Vitamin E deficiency


Introduction

  • Hypovitaminosis E is characterized by a history of reproductive losses and deaths of young individuals associated with muscular weakness and hindlimb paralysis.
  • Due to feed manufacturing processes and packaging it is a relatively rare occurrence.
  • In rabbits fed a totally non-manufactured diet (hay/grass and vegetables) poor storage of preserved grass, etc could potentially lead to deficiency of vitamin E.
  • Cause: vitamin E deficiency.
  • Signs: muscle weakness/hindlimb paralysis.
  • Diagnosis: clinical examination, diagnostic imaging.
  • Treatment: antibiotics, pain relief, nutrition support/fluid therapy.
  • Prognosis: depends on associated symptoms.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Hypovitaminosis to give to your clients.
 

Presenting signs

Acute presentation

Age predisposition

  • Muscle weakness and hindlimb paralysis reported in juveniles, 3-10 weeks of age.
  • Reproductive failure in older individuals.
  • Death in neonates.
  • Myocardial disease potentially in any age class.

Sex predisposition

  • Reproductive failure due to poor sperm viability.

Cost considerations

  • Significant in breeding colonies, with reproductive failure and neonatal losses associated.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Muscle weakness and myocardial damage both increase anesthetic risk.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Castellini C, Mourvaki E, Dal Bosco A et al (2007) Vitamin E biochemistry and function: A case study in male rabbit. Reprod Dom Anim 42 (3), 248-256 PubMed.
  • Czarnecki W & Zimmer L (2006) Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of alpha-tocopherol in rabbits. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skladowska Lublin-Polonia 19 (2, 22), 153-160.
  • Blomhoff R & Blomhoff H K (2006) Overview of retinoid metabolism and function. J Neurobiol 66 (7), 606-630 PubMed.
  • Schneider C (2005) Chemistry and biology of vitamin E. Mol Nutr Food Res 49 (1), 7-30 PubMed.
  • St Clair M B, Kennett M J & Besch-Williford C L (2004) Vitamin A toxicity and vitamin E deficiency in a rabbit colony. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 43 (4), 26-30 PubMed.
  • Collins M D & Mao G E (1999) Teratology of retinoids. Annual Rev Pharm & Toxicol 39 (1), 399-430 PubMed.
  • Tzimas G, Collins M D, Bürgin H et al (1996) Embryotoxic doses of vitamin A to rabbits result in low plasma but high embryonic concentrations of all trans-retinoic acid: Risk of vitamin A exposure in humans. J Nutr 126 (9), 2159-2171 PubMed.
  • Axford-Gatley R A & Wilson G J (1990) Reduction of experimental myocardial infarct size by oral administration of alpha-tocopherol. Cardiovasc Res 25 (2), 89-92 PubMed.
  • Godfried S L, Combs G F Jr., Saroka J M & Dillingham L A (1989) Potentiation of atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits by a high dietary level of vitamin E. Br J Nutr 61 (3), 607-617 PubMed.
  • Bardosi A & Dickmann U (1987) Necrotizing myopathy with paracrystalline inclusion bodies in hypervitaminosis E. Acta Neuropathol 75 (2), 166-172 PubMed.
  • Hennekens C H, Mayrent S L & Willett W (1986) Vitamin A, carotenoids and retinoids. Cancer 58 (8 Suppl), 1837-1841 PubMed
  • Fox R R, Eaton H D & Crary D D (1982) Vitamin A, betacarotene and hereditary buphthalmus in the rabbit. J Hered 73 (5), 370-374 PubMed.
  • Jack Yang N Y & Desai I D (1976) Effect of high levels of dietary vitamin E on hematological indices and biochemical parameters in rats. J Nutr 107 (8), 1410-1417 PubMed.
  • March B E, Wong E, Seier L et al (1973) Hypervitaminosis E in the chick. J Nutr 103 (3), 371-377 PubMed.
  • McMichael H (1965) Inhibition of shope rabbit papilloma by hypervitaminosis A. Cancer Res 25 (7), 947-955 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Higdon J, Drake V J & Traber M G (2008)Vitamin E.Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center. Website:http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminE
  • Higdon J, Drake V J & Russell R M (2007)Vitamin A.Oregon State University, Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center. Website:http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminA
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002)Textbook of Rabbit Medicine.Butterworth Heinemann.
  • McDonald P, Edwards R A, Greenhalgh J F D & Morgan C A (1996)Animal Nutrition.5th edn. Longman.
  • Cheeke P R (1994)Nutrition and Nutritional diseases.In: Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd edn. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D H & Newcomer C E. Academic Press. pp 321-333.
  • Hunt C E & Harrington D D (1974)Nutrition and Nutritional diseases of the Rabbit.In: Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 1st edn. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D H & Newcomer C E. Academic Press. 403-428.

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