Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Hypotension

Contributor(s): Sarah Pellett, Livia Benato

Introduction

  • Hypotension is defined as a decrease in arterial blood pressure below the normal value for this species. Normal blood pressure in rabbit is systolic pressure 90-130 mmHg and diastolic pressure 80-90 mmHg.
  • Systolic blood pressure (using the Doppler technique) <90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure <75 mmHg are considered low.
  • Cause: it can be caused secondary to dehydration, hypovolemic shock, sepsis, trauma, deep anesthesia, hypoxia, ischemia, tachy-/bradycardia, reflex/postural/orthostatic hypotension, myocardial depression.
  • Signs: lethargy, abnormal pulse rate, weakness, collapse and death.
  • Diagnosis: the diagnosis is made by blood pressure measurement that result in low levels.
  • Treatment: address underlying causes; medical support of the animal while blood pressure is low.
  • Prognosis: varies depending on underlying causes.

Presenting signs

  • Weakness.
  • Barely palpable peripheral pulses.
  • Prolonged capillary refill time.
  • Pallor.
  • Tachycardia unrelated to surgical stimulus.
  • Lethargy.

Acute presentation

  • Collapse.
  • Death.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chitty J (2015) Cardiovascular disease in rabbits. Comp Anim 20 (2), 74-78 VetMedResource.
  • Willeford B (2011) Orthostatic hypotension in the anesthetized rabbit in the sitting position exceeds cerebral autoregulation. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 23 (1), 11-15 PubMed.
  • Harvey L, Knowles T & Murison P J (2010) Comparison of direct and Doppler arterial blood pressure measurements in rabbits during isoflurane anaesthesia. Vet Anaesth Analg 39 (2), 174-184 PubMed.
  • Reusch B (2005) Investigation and management of cardiovascular disease in rabbits. In Pract 27 (8), 418-425 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Mancinelli E & Lord B (2014) Urogenital System and Reproductive Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp191-204.
  • Orcutt C (2014) Cardiovascular Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B(eds). BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 205-213.
  • Varga M (2014) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, Edinburgh.
  • Fisher P G (2013) Renal Disorders. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor.  Birds and Exotics Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier, Missouri.
  • Grint N (2013) Anaesthesia. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 1-25.
  • Raftery A (2013) Cardiovascular Disease. In: Clinical Veterinary Advisor. Birds and Exotics Pets. Eds: Mayer J & Donnelly T M. Elsevier, Missouri.
  • Pollock C (2006) Therapeutics. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester.


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