Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Hereditary conditions

Contributor(s): Molly Varga, Owen Davies, Sarah Pellett

Oral conditions

Mandibular prognathism 

  • Mandibular prognathism Dental malocclusion / overgrowth (brachygnathia superior) has been seen in virtually all breeds of rabbit, however it is probably most common in Netherland Dwarfs Netherland Dwarf, and the Lops French Lop Dwarf Lop Miniature Lop (other than the English and Meissner Lops).
  • This is most likely due to being bred for a relatively short face.
  • Rabbits with hereditary mandibular prognathism show malocclusion fo incisors after 3 weeks of age.
  • Mandibles are abnormally long, relative to the length of the maxilla, and as a result abnormal elongation of the incisors in seen.
  • At either of these times the rabbit is obviously growing, however malocclusion in older rabbits is more likely to be due to acquired dental disease Dental malocclusion / overgrowth, especially molars, or occasionally trauma, rather than mandibular prognathism. Occasionally it can manifest itself as young as 2-3 weeks old.
  • Most references to this condition consider it to be inherited as an autosomal recessive ratit with incomplete penetrance.

Absence of secondary incisors (peg teeth)

  • Absence of secondary incisors (peg teeth) is not uncommon in many breeds, although it has been particularly noted in Belgian Hares Belgian Hare, and Continental Giants Flemish Giant and Dwarf rabbits Dwarf Lop Netherland Dwarf.
  • Affected rabbits develop small rudimentary structures resembling teeth. These typically disappear shortly after birth.
  • The absence of these teeth is rarely of any consequence, which is perhaps surprising, as the lower incisors should occlude against both the main upper incisor teeth and these secondary incisors.
  • This is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition.

Supernumary secondary incisors (peg teeth)

  • Supernumery secondary incisors have been reported as a recessive condition with low penetrance.
  • Supernumary incisors may appear between the first and second incisors.
  • Extraction of supernumary teeth is required if incisor malocclusion is present due to tooth crowding.

Ophthalmological conditions

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Locomotor and neurological conditions

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Hematological conditions

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Urological conditions

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Reproductive conditions

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Dermatological conditions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Donnelly T M & Vella D (2016) Anatomy, physiology and non-dental disorders of the mouth of pet rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 19 (3), 737-756 PubMed.
  • Palmeiro B S & Roberts H (2013) Clinical approach to dermatological disease in exotic animals. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 16 (3), 523-577 PubMed.
  • Edward D P & Bouhenni R (2011) Anterior segment alterations and cpmparative aqueous humor proteomics in buphthalmic rabbit (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis). Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 109, 66-114 PubMed.
  • Meredith A (2007) Rabbit dentistry. Euro J Comp Anim Pract 17 (1), 55-62 VetMedResource.
  • Wagner F & Fehr M (2007) Common ophthalmic problems in pet rabbits. J Exotic Pet Med 16 (3), 158-167 VetMedResource.
  • Maurer K J, Marini R P, Fox J G & Rogers A B (2004) Polycystic kidney syndrome in New Zealand White rabbits resembling human polycystic kidney disease. Nat Pub Group 65 (2), 482-489 PubMed.
  • Fox J G, Shaleu M, Beaucage C M & Smith M (1979) Congenital entropion in a litter of rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 29 (4), 509-511 PubMed.
  • Fox R R & Crary D D (1975) Hereditary chondrodystrophy in the rabbit. Genetics and pathology of a new mutant, a model for metatropic dwarfism. Am Gen Assoc 66 (5), 271-276 PubMed.
  • Fox R R & Crary D D (1971) Hypogonadia in the rabbit: genetic studies ad morphology. J Hered 62 (3), 163-170 PubMed.
  • Crary D D, Fox R R & Sawin P B (1966) Spina bifida in the rabbit. Am Gen Assoc 57, 236-243 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Bourne D (2017) Spina Bifida in Rabbits. In: Wildpro. Website: http://wildpro.twycrosszoo.org. Last accessed 31st December 2017
  • Bourne D (2017) Multicentric Lymphoma. In: Wildpro. Website: http://wildpro.twycrosszoo.org. Last accessed 31st December 2017.
  • Saunders R A & Davies R R (2005) Organ Systems. In: Notes on Rabbit Internal Medicine. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 89-174.
  • Fox J G et al (2002) Laboratory Animal Medicine. Academic Press, USA.
  • Flecknell P (2000) BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. BSAVA, UK.
  • Cheeke P R et al (1987) Rabbit Production. 6th edn. The Interstate Printers and Publishers, USA.


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