Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Heart: valve disease

Synonym(s): Valvular disease

Contributor(s): Molly Varga, Anna Meredith

Introduction

  • Valvular disease involving the mitral and/or tricuspid valve is infrequently diagnosed in pet rabbits and there is very little published information.
  • Endocardiosis is often involved.
  • Spontaneous bacterial endocarditis has been described but appears to be uncommon.
  • Rabbits are commonly used as experimental models for valvular disease, eg due to bacterial endocarditis, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia.
  • Cause: congenital, endocardiosis, endocarditis, atherosclerosis.
  • Signs: focal cardiac murmur.
  • Diagnosis: auscultation, echocardiography, including Doppler.
  • Treatment: antibiosis for bacterial endocarditis, standard treatment for congestive heart failure if present.
  • Prognosis: guarded if associated with clinical signs.

Presenting signs

  • Lethargy.
  • Weakness.
  • Dyspnea   Dyspnea  .
  • May be no signs.

Acute presentation

  • Collapse.
  • Cyanosis.
  • Sudden death.

Cost considerations

  • Diagnostic procedures and on-going treatments are associated with potentially high financial costs.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Increased anesthetic risk if cardiac function compromised.

Pathogenesis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Sequelae

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Vörös K, Seehusen F, Hungerbühler S et al (2011) Ventricular septal defect with aortic valve insufficiency in a New Zealand White rabbit. JAAHA 47 (4), e42-49 PubMed.
  • Donnelly K B (2008) Cardiac valvular pathology: comparative pathology and animal models of acquired cardiac valvular diseases. Toxicologic Pathology 36 (2), 204-17 PubMed.
  • Drolet M C, Couet J & Arsenault M (2008) Development of aortic valve sclerosis or stenosis in rabbits: role of cholesterol and calcium. J Heart Valve Dis 17 (4), 381-387 PubMed.
  • Ngo D T, Stafford I, Kelly D J et al (2008) Vitamin D(2) supplementation induces the development of aortic stenosis in rabbits: interactions with endothelial function and thioredoxin-interacting protein. Eur J Pharmacol 590 (1-3), 290-296 PubMed.
  • Li X, Murphy J C & Lipman N S (1995) Eisenmenger's syndrome in a New Zealand white rabbit. Lab Anim Sci 45 (5), 618-620 PubMed.
  • Lowy F D, Chang D S, Neuhaus E G et al (1983) Effect of penicillin on the adherence of Streptococcus sanguis in vitro and in the rabbit model of endocarditis. J Clin Invest 71 (3), 668-675 PubMed.
  • Shamsuddin D, Tuazon C U, Miller H et al (1983) Experimental Staphylococcus epidermidis endocarditis in rabbit model. Arch Pathol Lab Med 107 (3), 141-143 PubMed.
  • Snyder S B, Fox J G, Campbell L H et al (1976) Disseminated staphylococcal disease in laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Lab Anim Sci 26 (1), 86-88 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Orcutt C (2006) Cardiovascular Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA Publications. pp 96-102.


ADDED