Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Heart: congestive heart failure

Contributor(s): Molly Varga, Anna Meredith

Introduction

  • Cause: inability of the heart to maintain circulatory equilibrium.
  • Signs: dyspnea, tachycardia, ascites, peripheral edema, cyanosis, arrhythmia.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, echocardiography.
  • Treatment: oxygen, diuretics, vasodilators, ACE inhibitors, thoracocentesis.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Presenting signs

  • Dyspnea   Dyspnea  .
  • Tachycardia/arrhythmias   Heart: arrhythmia  .
  • Abdominal enlargement.
  • Peripheral edema.
  • Cyanosis of mucous membranes.
  • Weakness.
  • Collapse.
  • Inappetence.

Acute presentation

  • Dyspnea   Dyspnea  .
  • Cyanosis.
  • Collapse.

Age predisposition

  • Increased incidence with age.

Cost considerations

  • Diagnostic procedures may be costly and long-term medication will be required.
  • Costs moderate to expensive.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Increased and high anesthetic risk.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lord B, Devine C & Smith S (2011) Congestive heart failure in two pet rabbits. JSAP 52 (1), 46-50 PubMed.
  • Martin M W, Darke P G & Else R W (1987) Congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation in a rabbit. Vet Rec 121 (24), 570-571 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Deeb B J & DiGiacomo R F (2000) Respiratory Disease of Rabbits. In: The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice 3. pp 465-480.


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