Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Fibromatosis

Synonym(s): Shope fibromatosis

Contributor(s): David Vella, Anna Meredith, Molly Varga

Introduction

  • Fibromatosis is caused by the Shope fibroma virus Shope fibroma virus, a naturally occurring leporipoxvirus of North and South American wild cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp), first isolated by Shope in 1932.
  • Domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are occasionally affected.
  • The virus is spread via arthropod vectors, mainly the mosquito.
  • This disease does not occur in the UK.

Presenting signs

  • Single or multiple flat subcutaneous nodules (fibromas) on genitals, perineum, ventral abdomen, paw, pinna, nose, lips and eyelid.
  • In cottontails there are usually 1-10 subcutaneous nodules, mainly on the legs and feet, or in some cases on the face and ears.
  • The fibromas are usually approximately 7 cm across and 2 cm thick. 
  • Fibromas may persist for 10-14 months in Cottontails Cottontail but eventually regress.
  • Affected rabbits remain otherwise healthy. 
  • Presenting signs are similar in the domestic rabbit, but the fibromas regress more quickly in adults than in cottontails, with lesions sloughing after approximately 30 days. 
  • Newborn and young rabbits tend to develop more extensive lesions and can develop a severe generalized form.

Geographic incidence

  • North and South America.

Age predisposition

  • All ages may be affected, but neonates and young animals develop more extensive lesions.

Cost considerations

  • Cheap, as most cases require no treatment.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Upton C U & McFadden G (1986) Tumorigenic poxviruses: analysis of viral DNA sequences implicated in the tumorigenicity of Shope fibroma virus and malignant rabbit virus. Virology 152 (2), 308-321 PubMed.
  • Strayer D S, Skaletsky E, Sell S (1984) Strain differences in Shope fibroma virus. An immunopathologic study. Am J Pathol 116 (2), 342-358 PubMed.
  • Pogo B G, Freimuth P, Stein A (1982) Shope fibroma virus I. Biological and molecular properties of a cytocidal and a noncytocidal strain. J Virol 41 (1), 97-103 PubMed.
  • Pulley L T & Shively J N (1973) Naturally occurring infectious fibroma in the domestic rabbit. Vet Pathol 10 (6), 509-519 VetMedResource.
  • Raflo C P, Olsen R G, Pakes S P et al (1973) Characterization of a fibroma virus isolated from naturally-occurring skin tumors in domestic rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 23 (4), 525-532 PubMed.
  • Joiner G N, Jardine J H, Gleiser C A (1971) An epizootic of Shope fibromatosis in a commercial rabbitry. JAVMA 159 (11), 1583-1587 PubMed.
  • Yiull T M & Hanson R P (1964) Infection of suckling cottontail rabbits with Shope's fibroma virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 117, 376-380 PubMed.
  • Kilham L & Dalmat H T (1955) Host-virus mosquito relations of Shope fibromas in cottontail rabbits. Am J Hyg 61 (1), 45-54 PubMed.
  • Kilham L & Fisher E R (1954) Pathogenesis of fibroma in cottontail rabbits. Am J Hyg 59 (1), 104-112 PubMed.
  • Kilham L & Woke P A (1953) Laboratory transmission of fibromas (Shope) in cottontail rabbits by means of fleas and mosquitoes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 83 (2), 296-301 PubMed.
  • Duran-Reynals F (1945) Immunological factors that influence the neoplastic effects of the rabbit fibroma virus. Cancer Res 5, 25-39 VetMedResource.
  • Ahlström C G (1938) The histology of the infectious fibroma in rabbits. J Path Bact 46, 461-472 VetMedResource.
  • Shope R E (1932) A transmissible tumor-like condition in rabbits. J Exp Med 56 (6), 793-802 PubMed.
  • Shope R E (1932) A filterable virus causing a tumor-like condition in rabbits and its relationship to virus myxomatosum. J Exp Med 56 (6), 803-822 PubMed.


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