Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Eyelid: entropion

Synonym(s): Inversion of the eyelid margin, rolling in of the eyelids

Contributor(s): Anna Meredith, Livia Benato

Introduction

  • Cause: entropion can be congenital or acquired.
  • Signs: blepharospasm, corneal ulceration, ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, corneal opacity and neovascularization of the cornea.
  • Diagnosis: evidence of inversion of upper or lower eyelid and irritation of the cornea due to the eyelashes.
  • Treatment: surgical correction of the entropion results in a complete regression of the clinical signs.
  • Prognosis: good.

Presenting signs

Acute presentation

  • Blepharospasm.
  • Anorexia secondary to pain.

Age predisposition

  • Congenital:
    • Entropion starts to become evident from two weeks of age.
    • Clinical signs may develop during the following few weeks.
  • Acquired: at any age.

Breed predisposition

  • Entropion has been reported to be more common in large breeds such as the giant English   English  and French Lops   French Lop  and also in obese rabbits.
  • In some breeds with lop ears, the large ears may drop in front of the eyes and mechanically irritate the eyelids, leading to entropion.

Public health consideration

  • Entropion does not present public health risk.

Cost considerations

  • The main cost is associated with the surgical correction of the entropion and the pre- and post-operative care of the rabbit.
  • Spontaneous correction unlikely.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Risks are associated with anesthesia during the surgical correction of the entropion. However, in healthy rabbits, the risks are reduced.
  • If entropion is not corrected, it will lead to persistent non-healing corneal ulcers   Eye: keratitis - overview   and to more severe ocular disease.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fox J G, Shalev M, Beaucage C M et al (1979) Congenital entropion in a litter of rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 29 (4), 509-511 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Vennen K M & Mitchell M A (2009) Rabbit. Manual of Exotic Pet Practice. Eds: Mitchell M A, Thomas N & Tully J. Sauders Elsevier. pp 382-411.
  • Stades F C, Wyman M, Boeve M H, Neumann W & Spiess B (2007) Entropion. In: Ophthalmology for the Veterinary Practitioner. 2nd edn. Schlutersche. pp 78-85.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) The Rabbit Consultation and Clinical techniques. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. ButterworthHeinemann. pp 52-93. 
  • Aiello S E & Mays A (1998) Eye and Ear. In: The Merck Veterinary Manual. 8th edn. Merck & Co. pp 350-380.


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