Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Eyelid: entropion

Synonym(s): Inversion of the eyelid margin, rolling in of the eyelids

Contributor(s): Anna Meredith, Livia Benato, Sarah Pellett

Introduction

  • Cause: entropion can be congenital or acquired. It is often seen as a combined entropion-ectropion, similar to the diamond eye syndrome seen in large breed dogs. There is a relative eyelid overlength with a kink in the middle of both the upper and lower eyelid to give the typical diamond-shaped palpebral aperture.
  • Signs: blepharospasm, corneal ulceration, ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, corneal opacity and neovascularization of the cornea.
  • Diagnosis: evidence of inversion of upper or lower eyelid and irritation of the cornea due to the eyelashes.
  • Treatment: surgical correction of the entropion results in a complete regression of the clinical signs.
  • Prognosis: good.

Presenting signs

Acute presentation

  • Blepharospasm.
  • Anorexia secondary to pain.

Age predisposition

  • Congenital:
    • Entropion starts to become evident from two weeks of age.
    • Clinical signs may develop during the following few weeks.
  • Acquired: at any age.

Breed predisposition

  • Entropion/ectropion has been reported to be more common in large breeds such as the giant English English, French Lops French Lop and Flemish Giants Flemish Giant, and also in obese rabbits.
  • In some breeds with lop ears, the large ears may drop in front of the eyes and mechanically irritate the eyelids, leading to entropion.

Public health consideration

  • Entropion does not present public health risk.

Cost considerations

  • The main cost is associated with the surgical correction of the entropion and the pre- and post-operative care of the rabbit.
  • Spontaneous correction unlikely.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Risks are associated with anesthesia during the surgical correction of the entropion. However, in healthy rabbits, the risks are reduced.
  • If entropion is not corrected, it will lead to persistent non-healing corneal ulcers Eye: keratitis - overview and to more severe ocular disease.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fox J G, Shalev M, Beaucage C M et al (1979) Congenital entropion in a litter of rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 29 (4), 509-511 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Knott T (2014) Ophthalmology. In: British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 232-254.
  • Fehr M (2013) Eye and Eyelid Surgery. In: British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 233-253.
  • Vennen K M & Mitchell M A (2009) Rabbit. In: Manual of Exotic Pet Practice. Eds: Mitchell M A, Thomas N & Tully J. Saunders Elsevier. pp 382-411.
  • Stades F C, Wyman M, Boeve M H, Neumann W & Spiess B (2007) Entropion. In: Ophthalmology for the Veterinary Practitioner. 2nd edn. Schlutersche. pp 78-85.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) The Rabbit Consultation and Clinical techniques. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann. pp 52-93. 
  • Aiello S E & Mays A (1998) Eye and Ear. In: The Merck Veterinary Manual. 8th edn. Merck & Co. pp 350-380.


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