Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Eye: keratitis - overview

Contributor(s): Anna Meredith, Joanna Hedley

Introduction

  • Causes: inflammation of the cornea usually occurs in response to a traumatic insult, or secondary to eyelid deformities.
  • Signs: variable, but may include corneal ulceration, hyperemia, ocular discharge, corneal edema.
  • Diagnosis: full ophthalmologic examination, fluorescein staining, Schirmer tear test.
  • Treatment: topical antibiotics, tear replacement therapy, surgical treatment if deep or refractory.
  • Prognosis: good if treated early, but otherwise may progress to corneal perforation.

Presenting signs

Acute presentation

  • Marked belpharospasm and conjunctival hemorrhage.
  • Localized corneal edema and disruption to the corneal surface (ulceration) may also be visible.

Geographic incidence

  • Worldwide.

Cost cosiderations

  • Inexpensive to treat if detected early and the inciting cause has been addressed.
  • Deeper or chronic non-healing ulcers may, however, requre weeks to months of medical/surgical treatment.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • None if treated medically.
  • Surgical treatment may require a general anesthetic   Anesthesia: general  with the associated risk of anesthetic complications.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Keller R L, Hendrix D V & Greenacre C (2007) Shope fibroma virus keratitis and spontaneous cataracts in a domestic rabbit. Vet Opthal 10 (3), 190-195 PubMed.
  • Venold F & Montiani-Ferreira F (2007) Selected ocular disorders in rabbits. Exotic DVM (1), 32-37.
  • Wagner F & Fehr M (2007) Common ophthalmic problems in pet rabbits. J Exotic Pet Med 16 (3), 158-167 VetMedResource.
  • Jeong M B, Kim N R, Yi N Y et al (2005) Spontaneous ophthalmic disease in 586 New Zealand White rabbits. Exp Anim 54 (5), 393-403 PubMed.
  • Andrew S E (2002) Corneal disease of rabbits. Vet Clin Exot Anim (2), 341-356 PubMed.
  • Sloop G D, Moreau J M, Conerly L L et al (1999) Acute inflammation of the eyelid and cornea in Staphylococcus keratitis in the rabbit. Invest Opthal & Visual Sci 40 (2), 385-391 PubMed.
  • Kern T J (1997) Rabbit and rodent ophthalmology. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med (3), 138-145 ScienceDirect.
  • Abrams K L, Brooks D E, Funk R S et al (1990) Evaluation of the Schirmer tear test in clinically normal rabbits. Am J Vet Res 51 (12), 1912-1913 PubMed.
  • Bauck L (1989) Ophthalmic conditions in pet rabbits and rodents. Comp Contin Educ Pract Vet 11 (3), 258-266 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Williams D (2006) Ophthalmology. In: Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 117-127.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Ophthalmic Disease. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. pp 292-306.
  • Van der Woerdt A (1997) Ophthalmologic Disease in Small Pet Mammals. In: Ferrets, Rabbits & Rodents - Clinical Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 421-428.


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