Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Eye: hyperemia

Synonym(s): Red eye

Contributor(s): Joanna Hedley, Brendan Carmel, Vicki Baldrey

Introduction

  • Hyperemia (red eye) is a common presenting sign in the rabbit.
  • Cause: increased blood flow to the conjunctival, episcleral or ciliary blood vessels, or intraocular hemorrhage can results in hyperemia.
  • Signs: red eye.
  • Diagnosis: clinical appearance.
  • Treatment: investigate underlying cause.
  • Prognosis: dependant on cause.

Presenting signs

  • The eye appears red.
  • Other signs such as ocular discharge Eye: ocular discharge - overview, blepharospasm or exophthalmos may be present.
  • Signs of pain such as reluctance to move, lethargy, anorexia.

Age predisposition

  • Depends on cause of red eye.
  • If due to E. cuniculi Encephalitozoon cuniculi related uveitis Eye: uveitis, generally <2 years.
  • If due to glaucoma, signs commonly seen first ~6 months.
  • If due to underlying dental disease, generally middle aged - older rabbits.

Breed predisposition

Public health considerations

Cost considerations

  • Depends on cause.
  • Conjunctivitis and uveitis may respond to medical treatment if diagnosed early.
  • Extra-ocular disease may require more intensive diagnostics and surgery.

Special risks

  • Extra-ocular disease diagnosis will generally require a general anesthetic Anesthesia: general.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wagner F & Fehr M (2007) Common ophthalmic problems in pet rabbits. J Exotic Pet Med 16 (3), 158-167 VetMedResource.
  • Millichamp N J (2002) Ophthalmic disease in exotic species. Vet Clin Exotic Anim 5 (2), 223-241 PubMed.
  • Kern T J (1997) Rabbit and rodent ophthalmology. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 6 (3), 138-145 ScienceDirect
  • Bauck L (1989) Ophthalmic conditions in pet rabbits and rodents. Comp Cont Educ Prac Vet 11 (3), 258-261, 264-266 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Knott T (2014) Ophthalmology. In: Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds. Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA. pp 232-254.
  • Varga M (2014) Ophthalmic Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. pp 350-366.
  • Williams D (2012) The Rabbit Eye. In: Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester. pp 15-55.


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