Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Eye: conjunctivitis

Contributor(s): David L Williams, David Gould, Joanna Hedley, Vetstream Ltd, Vladimir Jekl

Introduction

  • Cause: can occur together with dacryocystitis or alone, either as a result of infection, predominantly with Pasteurella or Staphylococcal species, or as a result of local irritative etiological factors.
  • Signs: conjunctival hyperemia, and edema (must distinguish from nictitating gland prolapse ), epiphora can be present.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, ophthalmoscopy, bacteriology, nasolacrimal duct cannulation and flushing, cytopathology.
  • Treatment: topical antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Prognosis: good, if cause identified.

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Presenting signs

Acute presentation

Red eye Eye: hyperemia.
Lacrimation Eye: ocular discharge - overview / epiphora Eye: epiphora.
 

Cost considerations

  • Moderate:
    • If bacteriological, cytological investigation and skull radiography with nasolacrimal duct contrast study are required.
  • Inexpensive:
    • Topical antibiotics and/or anti-inflammatory drugs alone.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bedard K M (2019) Ocular Surface Disease of Rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 22 (1), 1-14 PubMed.
  • Florin M, Rusanen E, Haessig M et al (2009) Clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of dacryocystitis in rabbits: a retrospective study of 28 cases (2003-2007). Vet Ophthalmol 12 (6), 350-356 PubMed.
  • Müller K, Fuchs W, Heblinski N et al (2009) Encephalitis in a rabbit caused by human herpesvirus-1. JAVMA 235 (1), 66-69 PubMed.
  • Wagner F & Fehr M (2007) Common ophthalmic problems in pet rabbits. J Exotic Pet Med 16 (3), 158-167 VetMedResource.
  • Jeong M B & Kim N R (2005) Spontaneous ophthalmic diseases in 586 New Zealand White rabbits. Exp Anim 54 (5), 395-403 PubMed.
  • Andrew S E (2002) Corneal disease of rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 5 (2), 341-356 PubMed.
  • Cooper S C, G J McLellan & Rycroft A N (2001) Conjunctival flora observed in 70 healthy domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Rec 149 (8), 232-235 PubMed.
  • Srivastava K K, Pick J R & Johnson P T (1986) Characterization of a Haemophilus sp. isolated from a rabbit with conjunctivitis. Lab Anim Sci 36 (3), 291-293 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Williams D (2012) Ed. The Rabbit Eye. In: Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 15-55.
  • Varga M (2014) Ophthalmic Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd Edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, UK. pp 350-366.


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