Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Epistaxis

Synonym(s): Nosebleed

Contributor(s): Sarah Pellett, Livia Benato

Introduction

  • Bleeding from the nasal cavity.
  • Cause: infection, space-occupying lesion (foreign body, neoplasia, tooth root abscess), coagulopathies (rare), vascular or systemic disease, calicivirus (rabbit hemorrhagic disease), iatrogenic and trauma.
  • Signs: bleeding from nares, sneezing, other secondary signs relating to underlying cause.
  • Diagnosis: physical examination, hematology, biochemistry, coagulation profile, skull radiography, thoracic radiography, advanced imaging (CT or MRI), rhinoscopy, cytology, histology, culture and sensitivity.
  • Treatment: control bleeding and concurrent clinical signs, and treat underlying causes.
  • Prognosis: varies according to underlying causes.

Print off the Owner factsheet onEpistaxis - nosebleed  Epistaxis - nosebleed  to give to your clients.

Presenting signs

  • Hemorrhage from nose and sneezing.
  • Blood stains around nose and front paws.
  • Ptyalism   Mouth: ptyalism  if associated with dental disease   Teeth: dental disease - overview  .
  • Anorexia   Anorexia  due to underlying cause.
  • Hematochezia or melena if associated with coagulopathies (rare in rabbits). Melena may also be a consequence of swallowing blood.

Acute presentation

  • Nasal hemorrhage.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Kanfer S (2014)Step-by-Step Guide to Blood Transfusion in the Rabbit. In: Proc Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians Conference.Orlando, Florida. pp 6-9.
  • Crossley DA (2003)Oral biology and disorders of lagomorphs.  Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract6(3), 629-660PubMed.
  • Deeb B J & DiGiacomo R F (2000)Respiratory diseases of rabbits.  Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotics Animal Practice3(2), 465-480PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Böhme E (2015)diseases of the Incisors.In: Dentistry in Rabbits and Rodents. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. pp 118-152.
  • Meredith A (2014)Respiratory Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 160-167.
  • Varga M (2014)Rabbit Basic Science.In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Elsevier. pp 3-110.
  • Oglesbee B (2011)Epistaxis.  Blackwells Five Minute Veterinary Consult. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester. pp 410-411.
  • Dodds W J (2000)Rabbit and ferret haemostasis.  Laboratory Medicine: Avian and Exotic Pets.  Ed: Fudge A M. W B Saunders, Philadelphia.


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