ISSN 2398-2969      

Dyspnea

Clapis

Introduction

Definition
  • Dyspnea is defined as difficult or labored breathing and is most often associated with diseases of the respiratory tract. However, other primary causes of dyspnea may include extra-pulmonary causes including heart disease, expansive abdominal diseases such as gastric bloat, and dental disease.

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Cause

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hyde D M, Downey G P, Tablin F et al (1997) Age-dependent neutrophil and blood flow responsiveness in acute pulmonary inflammation in rabbits. Am J Physiol 272 (3 Pt 1), L471-478 PubMed.
  • Mazars E, Guyot K, Durand I et al (1997) Isoenzyme diversity in Pneumocystis carinii from rats, mice and rabbits. J Infect Dis 175 (3), 655-660 PubMed.
  • Ramírez-Romero R, Brogden K A & Cutlip R C (1997) Influence of immunization on the pulmonary inflammatory response of rabbits induced by Pasteurella haemolytica A1 lipopolysaccharide. J Comp Pathol 117 (2), 137-145 PubMed.
  • Richardson M, Fletch A, Delaney K et al (1997) Increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by aortic endothelium of rabbits with Pasteurella multocida pneumonia. Lab Anim Sci 47 (1), 27-35 PubMed.
  • Moazed T C, Kuo C, Patton D L et al (1996) Experimental rabbit models of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Am J Physiol 48 (2), 667-676 PubMed.
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  • DiGiacomo R F, Deeb B J, Brodie S J et al (1993) Toxin production by Pasteurella multocida isolated from rabbits with atrophic rhinitis. Am J Vet Res 54 (8), 1280-1286 PubMed.
  • DeLong D, Manning P J, Gunther R et al (1992) Colonization of rabbits by Pasteurella multocida - serum IgG responses following intranasal challenge with serologically distinct isolates. Lab Anim Sci 42 (1), 13-18 PubMed.
  • Dugal F, Bélanger M & Jacques M (1992) Enhanced adherence of Pasteurella multocida to porcine tracheal rings preinfected with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Can J Vet Res 56 (3), 260-264 PubMed.
  • Onderka D K, Papp-Vid G & Perry A W (1992) Fatal herpesvirus infection in commercial rabbits. Can Vet J 33 (8), 539-543 PubMed.
  • Zimmerman T E, Deeb B J & DiGiacomo R F (1992) Polypeptides associated with Pasteurella multocida infection in rabbits. Am J Vet Res 53 (7), 1108-1112 PubMed.
  • Broome R L & Brooks D L (1991) Efficacy of enrofloxacin in the treatment of respiratory pasteurellosis in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 41 (6), 572-576 PubMed.
  • Chrisp C E & Foged N T (1991) Induction of pneumonia in rabbits by use of a purified protein toxin from Pasteurella multocida. Am J Vet Res 52 (1), 56-61 PubMed.
  • Choi-Kim K, Maheswaran S K, Felice L J et al (1991) Relationship between the iron regulated outer membrane proteins and the outer membrane proteins of in vivo grown Pasteurella multocida. Vet Microbiol 28 (1), 75-92 PubMed.
  • Gunther R, Manning P J, Bouma J E et al (1991) Partial characterization of plasmids from rabbit isolates of Pasteurella multocida. Lab Anim Sci 41 (5), 423-426 PubMed.
  • Lu Y S, Lai W C, Pakes S P et al (1991) A monoclonal antibody against a Pasteurella multocida outer membrane protein protects rabbits and mice against pasteurellosis. Infect Immunol 59 (1), 172-180 PubMed.
  • Zaoutis T E, Reinhard G R, Cioffe C J et al (1991) Screening rabbit colonies for antibodies to Pasteurella multocida by an ELISA. Lab Anim Sci 41 (5), 419-422 PubMed.
  • Deeb B J, DiGiacomo R F, Bernard B L et al (1990) Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in rabbits. J Clin Microbiol 28 (1), 70-75 PubMed.
  • DiGiacomo R F, Taylor F G R, Allen V et al (1990) Naturally acquired Pasteurella multocida infection in rabbits - immunological aspects. Lab Anim Sci 40 (3), 289-292 VetMedResource.
  • Glávits R & Magyar T (1990) The pathology of experimental respiratory infection with Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica in rabbits. Acta Vet Hung 38 (3), 211-215 PubMed.
  • Kurisu K, Kyo S, Shiomoto Y et al (1990) Cilia-associated respiratory bacillus infection in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 40 (4), 413-415 PubMed.
  • Okerman L, Devriese L A, Gevaert D et al (1990) In vivo activity of orally administered antibiotics and chemotherapeutics against acute septicaemic pasteurellosis in rabbits. Lab Anim 24 (4), 341-344 PubMed.
  • DiGiacomo R F, Deeb B J, Giddens W E et al (1989) Atrophic rhinitis in New Zealand White rabbits infected with Pasteurella multocida. Am J Vet Res 50 (9), 1460-1465 PubMed.
  • Foged N T, Nielsen J P & Jorsal S E (1989) Protection against progressive atrophic rhinitis by vaccination with Pasteurella toxin purified by monoclonal antibodies. Vet Rec 125 (1), 7-11 PubMed.
  • Shell L G & Saunders G (1989) Arteriosclerosis in a rabbit. JAVMA 194 (5), 679-680 PubMed.
  • Spreadbury C L, Krausz T, Pervez S et al (1989) Invasive aspergillosis: clinical and pathological features of a new animal model. J Med Vet Mycol 27 (1), 5-15 PubMed.
  • Ikeda J S & Hirsh D C (1988) Antigenically related iron-regulated outer membrane proteins produced by different somatic serotypes of Pasteurella multocida. Infect Immun​ 56 (9), 2499-2502 PubMed.
  • Duclos P, Caillet J & Javelot P (1986) Aerobic bacterial flora of the nasal cavity of farmed rabbits. Ann Rech Vet 17 (2), 185-190 VetMedResource.
  • Nakagawa M, Nakayama K, Saito M et al (1986) Bacteriological and serological studies on Pasteurella multocida infection in rabbits. Jikken Dobutsu 35 (4), 463-469 PubMed.
  • Zeligs B J, Zeligs J D & Bellanti J A (1986) Functional and ultrastructural changes in alveolar macrophages from rabbits colonized with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect Immunol 53 (3), 702-706 PubMed.
  • Anderson L C, Rush H G & Glorioso J C (1984) Strain differences in the susceptibility and resistance of Pasteurella multocida to phagocytosis and killing by rabbit polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Am J Vet Res 45 (6), 1193-1198 PubMed.
  • Percy D H, Prescott J F & Bhasin J L (1984) Characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolated from rabbits in Canada. Can J Comp Med 48 (2), 162-165 PubMed.
  • Corbeil L B, Strayer D S, Skaletsky E et al (1983) Immunity to pasteurellosis in compromised rabbits. Am J Vet Res 44 (5), 845-50 PubMed.
  • DiGiacomo R F, Garlinghouse L E Jr. & Van Hoosier G L Jr. (1983) Natural history of infection with Pasteurella multocida in rabbits. JAVMA 183 (11), 1172-1175 PubMed.
  • Glorioso J C, Jones G W, Rush H G et al (1982) Adhesion of type A Pasteurella multocida to rabbit pharyngeal cells and its possible role in rabbit respiratory tract infections. Infect Immunol 35 (3), 1103-1109 PubMed.
  • Lu Y S, Pakes S P, Rehg J E et al (1982) Pathogenicity of serotype 12 - A Pasteurella multocida in hydrocortisone treated and non-treated rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 32 (3), 258-262 PubMed.
  • Patton N M, Holmes H T, Caveny D D et al (1980) Experimental inducement of snuffles in rabbits. J Appl Rabbit Res 3, 8-12.
  • Okerman L, Spanoghe L & De Bruycker R M (1979) Experimental infections of mice with Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from rabbits. J Comp Pathol 89 (1), 51-55 PubMed.
  • Lu Y S, Ringler D H & Park J S (1978) Characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolates from the nares of healthy rabbits and rabbits with pneumonia. Lab Anim Sci 28 (6), 691-697 PubMed.
  • Stephen G W & Cooper L V (1977) The role of analgesics in respiratory depression - a rabbit model. Anaesthesia 32 (4), 324-327 PubMed.
  • Watson W T, Goldsboro J A, Williams F P et al (1975) Experimental respiratory infection with Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 25 (4), 459-464 PubMed.
  • Deeb B J & Kenny G E (1967) Characterization of Mycoplasma pulmonis variants isolated from rabbits - 1. Identification and properties of isolates. J Bacteriol 93 (4), 1416-1424 PubMed.
  • Hagen K W Jr. (1958) Enzootic pasteurellosis in domestic rabbits; 1. Pathology and bacteriology. JAVMA 133, 77-80 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Deeb B J (1997) Respiratory disease and the Pasteurella complex. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Eds: E V Hillyer and K E Quesenberry. W B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 189-201.
  • Stein S & Walshaw S (1996) Rabbits. In: Handbook of Rabbit and Rodent Medicine. Eds: K Laber-Laird, M M Swindle and P Flecknell. Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford. pp 183-211.
  • DiGiacomo R F & Mare C J (1994) Viral diseases. In: Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. Eds: P Manning, D H Ringler and C E Newcomer. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida. pp 171-204.
  • Cohen J O (1991) Staphylococcus. In: Medical Microbiology. Ed: S Baron. Churchill Livingstone, New York. pp 203-214.
  • Manning P J, DiGiacomo R F & DeLong D (1989) Pasteurellosis in laboratory animals.In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Ed: C Adlam and J M Rutter. Academic Press, London. pp 263-302.
  • Rimler R B & Rhoades K R (1989) Pasteurella multocida. In: Pasteurella and Pasteurellosis. Eds: C Adlam and J M Rutter. Academic, London. pp 37-73.
  • Flatt R E (1974) Bacterial diseases. In: Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. Eds: SH Weisbroth, R E Flatt and A K Kraus. Academic Press, New York. pp 193-236.
  • Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine. Published by W B Saunders, Philadelphia.
  • Exotic Pet Practice. Veterinary Clinics of North America. Published by W B Saunders, Philadelphia.

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