Lapis ISSN 2398-2969


Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, Susan Brown, Stephen Hernandez-Divers, Maud Lafortune, Stephen Hernandez-Divers BVetMed BSc DZooMed(reptiles) CBiol MIBiol MRCVS and Maud Lafortune DVM, Molly Varga


  • Dyspnea is defined as difficult or labored breathing and is most often associated with diseases of the respiratory tract. However, other primary causes of dyspnea may include extra-pulmonary causes including heart disease, expansive abdominal diseases such as gastric bloat, and dental disease.

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

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