Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Diaphragm: hernia / rupture

Synonym(s): Diaphragmatic hernia / rupture

Contributor(s): Anna Meredith, Livia Benato, Lesa Thompson

Introduction

  • Cause: hereditary transmission and acquired secondary to a traumatic event.
  • Signs: increased respiratory effort, labored breathing, dyspnea.
  • Diagnosis: radiographic examination, ultrasonography and laparoscopy.
  • Treatment: surgical treatment.
  • Prognosis: depending on the severity of the diaphragmatic herniation and the internal organs, prognosis is generally considered good once the diaphragmatic defect has been surgically repaired.

Presenting signs

  • Increased respiratory effort.
  • Dyspnea and tachypnea.
  • Labored breathing.
  • Lethargy.
  • Small chronic herniation can be asymptomatic and found accidentally.

Acute presentation

  • Collapsed.
  • Hypovolemic shock.
  • Death due to respiratory insufficiency.

Age predisposition

  • Hereditary diaphragmatic herniation: newborn kits.
  • Traumatic diaphragmatic herniation: any age.

Sex predisposition

  • Hereditary diaphragmatic hernia: the condition is neither sex-limited nor sex-linked.

Cost considerations

  • The main cost is associated with the surgical treatment of the diaphragmatic herniation and the pre- and post-operative care of the rabbit.

Special risks

  • Risks associated with anesthesia during the surgical correction of the diaphragmatic herniation.
  • Endotracheal intubation Endotracheal intubation will enable careful mechanical or manual ventilation when the thoracic cavity is entered.
  • If the rupture is secondary to a traumatic event, concurrent shock should be treated before starting anesthesia and surgery.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Eastwood M P, Daamen W F, Joyeux L et al (2018) Providing direction improves function: Comparison of a radial pore‐orientated acellular collagen scaffold to clinical alternatives in a surgically induced rabbit diaphragmatic tissue defect model. J Tissue Engineer Regen Med 12 (11), 2138-2150 WileyOnline.
  • Suzuki K, Komura M, Terawaki K et al (2018) Engineering and repair of diaphragm using biosheet (a collagenous connective tissue membrane) in rabbits. J Ped Surg 53 (2), 330-334 PubMed.
  • Wummm R S, Chu C C, Wang H C & Chen K S (2016) Clinical diagnosis and surgical management of diaphragmatic retroperitoneal perirenal fat and kidney herniation in a pet rabbit. J Am Vet Med Assoc 248 (12), 1399-1403 PubMed.
  • Hammond J S, Yudd A, Schwartz L B et al (1996) Peritoneoscintigraphy in the diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. Am Surg 62 (12), 1055-1059 PubMed.
  • Fox R R & Crary D D (1973) Hereditary diaphragmatic hernia in the rabbit. J Hered 64 (6), 333-336 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Fossum T W (2007) Ed Surgery of the Lower Respiratory System: Pleural Cavity and Diaphragm. In: Small Animal Surgery. 3rd edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 896-929.


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