Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Diaphragm: hernia - rupture

Synonym(s): Diaphragmatic hernia / rupture

Contributor(s): Livia Benato

Introduction

  • Cause: hereditary transmission and acquired secondary to a traumatic event.
  • Signs: increased respiratory effort, labored breathing, dyspnea.
  • Diagnosis: radiographic examination, ultrasound scan and laparoscopy.
  • Treatment: surgical treatment.
  • Prognosis: depending on the severity of the diaphragmatic herniation and the internal organs, prognosis is generally considered good once the diaphragmatic defect has been surgically repaired.

Presenting signs

  • Increased respiratory effort.
  • Dyspnea and tachypnea.
  • Labored breathing.
  • Lethargy.
  • Small chronic herniation can be asymptomatic and found accidentally.

Acute presentation

  • Collapsed.
  • Hypovolemic shock.
  • Death due to respiratory insufficiency.

Age predisposition

  • Hereditary diaphragmatic herniation: newborn foals.
  • Traumatic diaphragmatic herniation: any age.

Sex predisposition

  • Hereditary diaphragmatic hernia: the condition is neither sex-limited nor sex-linked.

Cost considerations

  • The main cost is associated with the surgical treatment of the diaphragmatic herniation and the pre- and post-operative care of the rabbit.

Special risks, eg anesthetic

  • Risks associated with anesthesia during the surgical correction of the diaphragmatic herniation.
  • If the rupture is secondary to a traumatic event, concurrent shock should be treated before starting anesthesia and surgery.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Hammond J S, Yudd A, Schwartz L B, Margiotta M S & D'Amelio L F (1996)Peritoneoscintigraphy in the diagnosis of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. Am Surg62(12), 1055-1059PubMed.
  • Fox R R & Crary D D (1973)Hereditary diaphragmatic hernia in the rabbit. J Hered64(6), 333-336PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Fossum T W (2007) Ed Surgery of the Lower Respiratory System: Pleural Cavity and Diaphragm.In: Small Animal Surgery. 3rd ed.  Mosby Elsevier. pp 896-929.


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