ISSN 2398-2969      

Cystitis

Clapis

Synonym(s): Water infection, bladder infection, urinary tract infection


Introduction

  • If associated with uroliths then calculi may be found in the bladder, kidney, ureter, urethra or kidney.
  • The formation of calculi may occur as a result of several factors including diet, anatomy and (rarely) infection.
  • Rabbits have an unusual calcium metabolism. Most mammals have a urinary fractional excretion of 2% whereas rabbits may have 45-60%.
  • The level of dietary calcium is directly related to the amount of calcium excreted into the urine. It is not unusual therefore to detect calcium carbonate crystals in rabbit urine.
  • Uroliths are usually of calcium carbonate and readily visible on radiography.
Print off the Owner Factsheet on Cystitis to give to your clients.

Presentation

Acute

  • Anorexia, depression, pain, urine staining, weight loss, anuria, dysuria.
  • Hematuria, dysuria, urine scald, frequent urination, incontinence.
  • Acute collapse.

Incidence

Geographic

  • None reported.

Morbidity

  • 100% by definition.

Mortality

  • Rare unless associated with inability to urinate, bladder rupture or renal disease.

Cause

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Prognosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hillyer E V (1994) Pet rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 24 (1), 25-65 PubMed.
  • Garibaldi B A, Fox J G, Otto G et al (1987) Haematuria in rabbits. Lab Animal Sci 37 (6), 769-772 PubMed.
  • Mayo M E & Hinman F (1976) Structure and function of the rabbit bladder altered by chronic obstruction or cystitis. Invest Urol 14 (1), 6-9 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Oglesbee B L (2006) Lower Urinary Tract Infection. In: The 5-Minute Veterinary Consult: Ferret and Rabbit. Blackwell Publishing. pp 290.

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