Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Bordetella bronchiseptica infection

Contributor(s): Michelle Ward, Michelle Campbell-Ward, Molly Varga

Introduction

  • CauseBordetella bronchiseptica  Bordetella bronchiseptica  is a commensal organism (and potential pathogen) in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of many rabbits.  
  • It appears to be relatively non-pathogenic in this species. 
  • Although rare, certain strains of the organism are thought to have increased pathogenicity and are capable of producing opportunistic infections. 
  •  B. bronchiseptica  Bordetella bronchiseptica   is often found in association with Pasteurella multocida  Pasteurella multocida  in rabbits with clinical respiratory disease and as such is considered either a copathogen or a predisposing factor for pasteurellosis   Pasteurellosis  .
  • Signs: often none; nasal discharge, sneezing, dyspnea.
  • Diagnosis: respiratory cytology, rhinoscopy, transtracheal aspiration, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), bronchoscopy, skull/thoracic imaging.
  • Treatment: antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: good to poor.

Presenting signs

  • Most often none (as is commensal).
  • Nasal discharge.
  • Sneezing.  
  • Dyspnea   Dyspnea  .

Acute presentation

  • May present as acute dyspnea   Dyspnea   (rare).

Geographic incidence

  • Worldwide.

Age predisposition

  • In group situations, the prevalence of carriage of the organism increases with age.
  • Young rabbits (4-12 weeks old) are more likely to develop clinical signs of infection than adults.

Sex predisposition

  • None reported.

Breed predisposition

  • None reported.

Public health considerations

  •  B. bronchisepticais a potential zoonosis as it has been associated with respiratory tract infections in humans.
  • The risk of transmission to humans from rabbits, however, is considered low. 

Cost considerations

  • Accurate diagnosis can be moderately expensive. 
  • The cost of treatment (if deemed necessary) is usually low.

Special risks

  •  B. bronchisepticainfection predisposes rabbits to the development of pasteurellosis   Pasteurellosis  .
  • Pre-existing respiratory disease increases the risks associated with anesthesia   Anesthesia: overview  . Careful pre-anesthetic evaluation   Anesthesia: preparation  , drug selection and monitoring   Anesthesia: intra- and post-operative care  are therefore required when dealing with rabbits with known or suspected clinical B. bronchisepticainfection.  
  • This organism is pathogenic in guinea pigs, dogs, pigs and cats so there is a risk of disease transmission if these species have close contact with rabbits.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Sequelae

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pathak A K, Creppage K E, Werner J R et al (2010) Immune regulation of a chronic bacteria infection and consequences for pathogen transmission. BMC Microbiol 10, 226 PubMed.
  • Edwards J A, Groathouse N A & Boitano S (2005) Bordetella bronchiseptica adherence to cilia is mediated by multiple adhesion factors and blocked by surfactant protein A. Infect Immun 73 (6), 3618-3626 PubMed
  • Marlier D, Mainil J, Linde A et al (2000) Infectious agents associated with rabbit pneumonia: isolation of amyxomatous myxoma virus strains. Vet J 159 (2), 171-178 PubMed
  • Deeb B J, DiGiacomo R F, Bernard B L et al (1990) Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in rabbits. J Clin Microbiol 28 (1), 70-75 PubMed
  • Glávits R & Magyar T (1990) The pathology of experimental respiratory infection with Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica in rabbits. Acta Vet Hung 38 (3), 211-215 PubMed
  • Glass L S & Beasley J N (1989) Infection with and antibody response to Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica in immature rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 39 (5), 406-410 PubMed.
  • Zeligs B J, Zeligs J D & Bellanti J A (1986) Functional and ultrastructural changes in alveolar macrophages from rabbits colonized with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect Immun 53 (3), 702-706 PubMed.
  • Watson W T, Goldsboro J A, Williams F P et al (1975) Experimental respiratory infection with Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica in rabbits. Lab Anim Sci 25 (4), 459-464 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Keeble E (2006) Nervous and Musculoskeletal Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 103-116.
  • Meredith A (2006) Respiratory Disorders. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Meredith A & Flecknell P. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 67-73.
  • Deeb B J (2004) Respiratory Disease and Pasteurellosis. In: Ferrets, Rabbit and Rodents: Clinical Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Saunders, St. Louis. pp 172-182.
  • Mitchell M A & Tully T N (2004) Zoonotic diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbit and Rodents: Clinical Medicine & Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Saunders, St. Louis. pp 429-434.
  • Harcourt-Brown F (2002) Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Butterworth Heinemann, Edinburgh.
  • Percy D H & Barthold S W (2001) Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
  • DeLong D & Manning P J (1994) Bacterial diseases. In: The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit. 2nd edn. Eds: Manning P J, Ringler D H & Newcomer C E. Academic Press, San Diego. pp 129-170.


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