Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Bladder: atonic bladder

Contributor(s): Narelle Walter, Lesa Longley, Lesa Thompson, Sarah Pellett

Introduction

  • An atonic bladder is an inability of the bladder to empty effectively.   
  • Causes: includes calculi, neoplasia, urinary tract obstruction, lower and upper motor neuron lesions, lumbosacral vertebral subluxations or fractures, reflex dyssynergia such as that with Encephalitozoon cuniculi or Toxoplasma infection, and inability to void urine as a consequence from pain such as arthritis.
  • Signs: these rabbits can present with urine scalding, inappetence, weight loss and lethargy, so it may not be apparent at first that an atonic bladder is the underlying issue.
  • Diagnosis: palpation, radiography, cystography.
  • Treatment: catheterization, fluid therapy, environmental changes, treatment of underlying conditions.
  • Prognosis: variable - depends on etiology and chronicity.

Presenting signs

  • Urine scalding.
  • Incontinence or urine retention.
  • Weight loss.
  • Anorexia secondary to underlying issues.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Le K (2017) Therapeutic Review: Maropitant. J Exotic Pet Med 26 (4), 305-309 ScienceDirect.
  • De Cubellis J (2016) Common emergencies in rabbits, guinea pigs and chinchillas. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 19 (2), 411-429 PubMed.
  • Huynh M, Boyeaux A & Pignon C (2016) Assessment and care of the critically ill rabbit. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 19 (2), 379-409 PubMed.
  • Pellett S (2016) Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits: an overview. Comp Anim 21 (5), 300-305 VetMedResource.
  • Meredith A L & Richardson J (2015) Neurological diseases of rabbits and rodents.  J Exotic Pet Med 24 (1), 21-33 VetMedResource.
  • Clauss M, Burger B, Liesegang et al (2012) Influence of diet on calcium metabolism, tissue calcification and urinary sludge in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 96 (5), 798-807 PubMed.
  • Paul-Murphy J (2007) Critical care of the rabbitVet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 10 (2), 437-461 PubMed.
  • Göbel T (2002) Transurethral uroendoscopy in the female rabbit. Exotic DVM 4 (5), 23-27 VetMedResource.
  • White R N (2001) Management of calcium uretorolithiasis in a French Lop rabbit. JSAP 42 (12), 595-598 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Carpenter J W (2018) Rabbits. In: Exotic Animal Formularly. 5th edn. pp 494-531.
  • Bradley D S (2015) Emerging Trends in Veterinary Laser Technology: Revolutioning Pain Management and Wound Healing. In: Proc 2nd International Conference on Avian Herpetological & Exotic Mammal Medicine. pp 251-254.
  • Keeble E J (2014) Nervous System and Musculoskeletal Disorders. In: British Small Animal Veterinary Association Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 214-231.
  • Mancinelli E & Lord B (2014) Urogenital System and Reproductive Disease. In: British Small Animal Veterinary Association Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 191-204.
  • Capello V (2008) How I Treat Urolithiasis in Rabbits. In: Proc 42nd SEVC.
  • Flecknell P & Meredith A (2006) Manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. BSAVA, UK. ISBN-10: 090521496X; ISBN-13: 978-0905214962.


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