Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Anesthesia: local

Synonym(s): Local anesthesia

Contributor(s): Michelle Ward, Michelle Campbell-Ward, Lesa Longley, Lesa Thompson, Vicki Baldrey

Indications

  • Used as sole/adjunct analgesia   Analgesia  for painful procedures; may remove or reduce the requirement for sedation   Sedation  or general anesthesia    Anesthesia: general  .
  • As with other analgesics, pre-emptive administration is more effective.
  • No local anesthetic agents are licensed for use in rabbits, so informed owner consent should be obtained before use.

Print off the Owner factsheetAll about anesthesia  All about anaesthesia  to give to your clients.

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Disadvantages

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Drugs and doses

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Types of local anesthesia

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fonseca C, Server A, Esteves M et al (2015) An ultrasound-guided technique for axillary brachial plexus nerve block in rabbits. Lab Anim 44 (5), 179-184 PubMed.
  • Wenger S (2012) Anesthesia and analgesia in rabbits and rodents. J Exotic Pet Med 21 (1), 7-16 VetMedResource.
  • Barter L S (2011) Rabbit analgesia. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 14 (1), 93-104 PubMed.
  • ACLAM Task Force Members, Kohn D F, Martin T E et al (2007) Public statement: guidelines for the assessment and management of pain in rodents and rabbits. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 46 (2), 97-108 PubMed.
  • Ito E, Ichinohe T, Shibukawa Y et al (2007) Anesthetic duration of lidocaine with 10% dextran is comparable to lidocaine with 1:160,000 epinephrine after intraosseous injection in the rabbit. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 104 (3), e26-31 PubMed.
  • Arikan O K, Muluk N B, Budak B et al (2006) Effects of ropivacaine on transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions: a rabbit model. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 263 (5), 421-425 PubMed.
  • Chang Y S, Tseng S Y, Tseng S H et al (2006) Cytotoxicity of lidocaine or bupivacaine on corneal cells in a rabbit model. Cornea 25 (5), 590-596 PubMed.
  • Demirel E, Ugur H C, Dolgun H et al (2006) The neurotoxic effects of intrathecal midazolam and neostigmine in rabbits. Anesth Intensive Care 34 (2), 218-223 PubMed.
  • Gomell A H, Kand R W, Williams J M et al (2006) Chondrolysis after continuous intra-articular bupivacaine infusion: an experimental model investigating chondrotoxicity in the rabbit shoulder. Arthroscopy 22 (8), 813-819 PubMed.
  • Taguchi H, Murao K, Nakamura K et al (1996) Percutaneous chronic epidural catheterization in the rabbit. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 40 (2), 232-236 PubMed.
  • Hogan Q H, Stadnicka A, Stekiel T A et al (1993) Effects of epidural and systemic lidocaine on sympathetic activity and mesenteric circulation in rabbits. Anesthesiology 79 (6), 1250-1260 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Flecknell P A & Thomas A A (2015) Comparative Anesthesia and Analgesia of Laboratory Animals. In: Lumb and Jones' Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Eds: Grimm K A, Lamont L A, Tranquilli W J, Greene S A & Robertson S A. Wiley Blackwell. pp 754-763. ISBN: 1118526236.
  • Meredith A (2015) BSAVA Small Animal Formulary Part B: Exotic Pets. 9th edn. BSAVA. ISBN: 9053198284.
  • Eatwell K (2014) Analgesia, Sedation and Anesthesia. In: Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds. Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA. pp 138-159. ISBN: 1905319497.
  • Varga M (2014) Anesthesia and Analgesia. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. pp 178-202. ISBN: 0702049798.
  • Fiorello C V & Divers S J (2013) Rabbits. In: Exotic Animal Formulary.4th edn. Elsevier Saunders. pp 518-560. ISBN: 1437722642.
  • Hawkins M G & Pascoe P J (2012) Anesthesia, Analgesia and Sedation of Small Mammals. In: Ferrets Rabbits & Rodents: Clinical Medicine & Surgery. 3rd edn. Ed: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Saunders. pp 429-451. ISBN: 1416066217.
  • Rosenthal K (2003) Managing Pain in Cats, Dogs, Small Mammals and Birds - Recognition, Relief and Economics. In: Proc North Am Vet Conf. Available to VIN members atwww.vin.com/Members/Proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID/pain2003&PID=pro581980=VIM.


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