Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Anesthesia: inhalational

Contributor(s): Lesa Thompson, Peter Dobromylskyj, Paul Flecknell, Lesa Longley, Gina Neiger-Aeschbacher, Vicki Baldrey

Introduction

  • All commercially available inhalational agents have been used in the rabbit.
  • The most widely used agents are isoflurane   Isoflurane  and sevoflurane   Sevoflurane  .
  • It is also safe to use desflurane and methoxyflurane.
  • Halothane used to be widely used, however has been surprised by isoflurane and is no longer widely available.
  • Ether should not be used in rabbits, as it is very irritating to the respiratory system and can exacerbate pre-existing respiratory disease.
  • All inhalational agents should be used with calibrated vaporizers only.

Print off the Owner factsheet All about anaesthesia to give to your clients.

Induction

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Maintenance

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Agents

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Room pollution

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Uzun M, Kiraz H A, Ovali M A et al (2015) The investigation of airway management capacity of v-gel and cobra-PLA in anaesthetised rabbits. Acta Cir Bras 30 (1), 80-86 PubMed
  • Johnson D H (2010) Endoscopic intubation of exotic companion mammals. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 13 (2), 273-289 PubMed.
  • Marsh M K, McLeod S R, Hansen A et al (2009) Induction of anaesthesia in wild rabbits using a new alfaxalone formulation. Vet Rec 164 (4), 122-123 PubMed.
  • González-Gil A, Silván G, García-Partida P et al (2006) Serum glucocorticoid concentrations after halothane and isoflurane anesthesia in New Zealand white rabbits. Vet Rec 159 (2), 51-52 PubMed.
  • Smuszkiewicz P, Drobnik L, Mieszkowski J et al (2006) Comparison of the influence of halothane and isoflurane on airway transepithelial potential difference. Pharmacol Rep 58 (5), 736-745 PubMed.
  • Turner P V, Kerr C L, Healy A J et al (2006) Effect of meloxicam and butorphanol on minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in rabbits. Am J Vet Res 67 (5), 770-774 PubMed.
  • Bateman L, Ludders J W, Gleed R D et al (2005) Comparison between facemasks and laryngeal mask airway in rabbits during isoflurane anesthetic. Vet Anesth Analg 32 (5), 280-288 PubMed.
  • Gil A G, Silván G, Martínez-Mateos M M et al (2005) Serum catecholamine levels after halothane and isoflurane anaesthesia in rabbits. Vet Rec 157 (19), 589-590 PubMed.
  • Hedenquist P, Rougham J V, Antunes L et al (2001) Induction of anaesthesia with desflurane and isoflurane in the rabbit. Lab Anim 35 (2), 172-179 PubMed.
  • Borkowski R & Karas A Z (1999) Sedation and anesthesia of pet rabbits. Clin Tech Small Animal Pract 14 (1), 44-49 PubMed.
  • Flecknell P A, Roughan J V & Hedenqvist P (1999) Induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane and isoflurane in the rabbit. Lab Anim 33 (1), 41-46 PubMed.
  • Imai A, Steffey E P, Ilkiw J E et al (1999) Comparison of clinical signs and hemodynamic variables used to monitor rabbits during halothane- and isoflurane-induced anesthesia. Am J Vet Res 60 (10), 1189-1195 PubMed.
  • Flecknell P A, Cruz I J, Liles J H et al (1996) Induction of anaesthesia with halothane and isoflurane in the rabbit - a comparison of the use of a face-mask or an anaesthetic chamber. Lab Anim 30 (1), 67-74 PubMed.
  • Flecknell P A & Liles J H (1996) Halothane anaesthesia in the rabbit - a comparison of the effects of medetomidine, acepromazine and midazolam on breath-holding during induction. J Vet Anaesth 23 (1), 11-14 VetMedResource.
  • Aeschbacher G (1995) Rabbit anesthesia. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 17 (8), 1003-1011 VetMedResource.
  • Peeters M, Gil D, Teske E et al (1988) Four methods for general anaesthesia in the rabbit: a comparative study. Lab Anim 22 (4), 355-360 PubMed
  • Scheller M S, Saidman L J & Partridge B L (1988) MAC of sevoflurane in humans and the New Zealand white rabbit. Can J Anaesth 35 (2), 153-156 PubMed.
  • Drummond J C (1985) MAC for halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane in the New Zealand White rabbit and a test for the validity of MAC determinations. Anesthesiology 62 (3), 336-338 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Flecknell P (2016)Managing and Monitoring Anesthesia.In: Laboratory Animal Anesthesia.4th edn. Academic Press, Elsevier, London. pp 77-108.
  • Eatwell K (2014)Anaglesia, Sedation and Anesthesia.In: Manual of Rabbit Medicine.Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA. pp 138-159.
  • Varga M (2014) EdAnesthesia and Analgesia.In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine.  2nd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. pp 178-202.
  • Sedgwick C J (1986)Anesthesia for Rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract2, 731-736.


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