ISSN 2398-2969      

Anesthesia: analgesia - opioids

Clapis

Synonym(s): Opioid analgesia


Introduction

  • Opioid analgesics mimic the response of endogenous opioid peptides such as endorphins and enkephalins and mediate descending inhibition of pain-modulating pathways within the brain and dorsal horn of the spinal cord.
  • Useful agents for the treatment of mild to severe pain.
  • Opioids are usually classified as agonists, partial agonists or agonist-antagonists, and antagonists.
  • Three main opioid receptor types have been identified (mu, kappa and delta).
  • Moderate to severe pain is best treated with full agonist opioids that bind primarily to mu receptors: morphine Morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, fentanyl Fentanyl and remifentanyl.
  • Partial agonists are best suited for conditions associated with mild to moderate pain or where extra sedation is needed.
  • Opioids can provide sedation Sedation in addition of their analgesic properties Analgesia.
  • Opioids can be combined with other drugs (NSAIDs Therapeutics: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ketamine Ketamine, alpha-2 agonists, etc) for additive analgesic effects (multimodal analgesia).
  • Opioids are controlled substances.

Drugs

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Side effects

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Benato L, Rooney N J, Murrell J C (2019) Pain and analgesia in pet rabbits within the veterinary environment: a review. Vet Anaesth Analg 46 (2), 151-162 PubMed.
  • Rockwell K (2019) Buprenorphine. J Exotic Pet Med 30, 12-16.
  • Deflers H, Gandar F, Bolen G et al (2018) Influence of a single dose of buprenorphine on rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) gastrointestinal motility. Vet Anaesth Analg 45 (4), 510-519 PubMed.
  • DiVicenti L Jr., Meirelles L A & Westcott R A (2016) Safety and clinical efffectiveness of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits. JAVMA 248 (7), 795-801 PubMed.
  • Touzot-Jourde G, Nino V & Holopherne-Doran D (2015) Comparison of methadone and morphine sedation and analgesia in the NZW rabbit. J Vet Pharmacol Therap 38 (Suppl I), 70-71 ResearchGate.
  • Gusak V, Turkovic V, Nesek-Adam V et al (2013) Lidocaine serum concentration after epidural administration in combination with morphine and fentanyl in rabbit - a preliminary study. Res Vet Sci 94 (3), 651-655 PubMed.
  • Sakuraba S, Tsujita M, Arisaka H et al (2009) Donepezil reverses buprenorphine-induced central respiratory depression in anesthetized rabbits. Biol Res 42 (4), 469–475 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Plumb D (2015) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook. 8th edn. Wiley-Blackwell, UK. pp 1296.
  • Maguire S & Hawk C T (2012) Formulary. In: The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and other Rodents. Eds: Suckow M, Stevens K & Wilson R. Academic Press, USA. pp 1193-1229.
  • Lester P A, Moore R M & Shuster K A (2012) Anesthesia and Analgesia. In: The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and other Rodents. Eds: Suckow M, Stevens K & Wilson R. Academic Press, USA. pp 33-56.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code