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Trachea: tracheitis

Clapis

Introduction

  • Cause: irritation and injury to tracheal epithelium caused by trauma or an infectious etiology.
  • Signs: open-mouth breathing, inspiratory dyspnea, cyanosis, respiratory stridor.
  • Diagnosis: hematology, biochemistry, radiography, tracheoscopy, bacterial culture, sensitivity and cytology.
  • Treatment: depends on underlying causes.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying causes.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Tracheitis to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Injury to the respiratory epithelium from trauma.
  • Injury to the respiratory epithelium due to a viral infection.
  • Secondary bacterial, fungal or mycoplasmal infection may follow, exacerbating mucosal damage and clinical signs.

Predisposing factors

Specific

  • Recent history of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation.

Pathophysiology

  • Pathogenesis may involve an injury to the respiratory epithelium either through trauma or viral infection.
  • Secondary bacterial, fungal or mycoplasmal infection may follow, exacerbating mucosal damage and clinical signs.

Timecourse

  • For tracheal stenosis, 7-21 days post-anesthesia and intubation.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Grint N J, Sayers I R, Cecchi R et al (2006) Post-anaesthetic tracheal strictures in three rabbits. Lab Anim 40 (3), 301-308 PubMed.
  • Glávits R & Magyar T (1989) The pathology of experimental respiratory infection with Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica in rabbits. Acta Vet Hung 38 (3), 211-215 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hedley J (2014) Respiratory Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, Gloucester. pp 160-167.
  • Mancinelli E & Eatwell K (2013) Tracheal Stricture After Laparoscopic Ovariectomy in Two Rabbits. In: 1st International Conference on Avian, Herpetological & Exotic Mammal Medicine. Wiesbaden, Germany. pp 190.
  • Raymond J L (2013) Pathology of the Rabbit. In: 56th Annual Pathology of Lab Animals. Website: www.cldavis.org. Last accessed 11th July 2016.
  • Keeble E & Meredith A (2006) Rabbit Medicine and Surgery: Self-Assessment Colour Review. Manson Publishing, Florida.

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