Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Lung lobe abscess

Contributor(s): William Lewis, David Perpinan

Introduction

  • Cause:
    • Usually bacterial infection with Pasteurella multocida but may involve other bacteria such as Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus.
    • Chlamydia.
    • Mixed infections may occur.
    • Fungal infections have also been reported.
    • Foreign bodies such as bits of hay may also predispose to pulmonary abscesses.
  • Signs: may be subtle initially and not noticed by owners. Later, increased respiratory rate and effort may be noticed. Abnormal lung sounds may also be heard. With total abscessation very little may be heard.
  • Diagnosis: lateral and dorsoventral radiographs, ultrasound, CT scans.
  • Treatment: lung lobectomy of the affected lobe.
  • Prognosis: good if the patient survives the surgical procedure and anesthetic. Prognosis improves if only one lung lobe is affected.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Stress.
  • Overcrowding.
  • Poor ventilation and hygiene with raised ammonia levels.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Rabbit white blood cells lack lysozymes, so pus becomes inspissated.
  • Capsule of P. multocida contains hyaluronic acid.
  • This inhibits phagocytosis and opsonization.
  • Thick pus generally results as a lack of response to medical therapy.

Timecourse

  • Variable.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Deeb B J & DiGiacomo R F (2000) Respiratory Diseases of Rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract (2), 465-480 PubMed.
  • Deeb B J, DiGiacomo R F, Bernard B L & Silbernagel S M (1990) Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in rabbits. J Clin Microbiol 28 (1), 70-75 PubMed.
  • Thurston J R, Cysewski S J & Ricahrd J L (1979) Exposure of rabbits to spores of Aspergillus fumigatus or Penicillium sp: survival of fungi and microscopic changes in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Am J Vet Res 40 (10), 1443-1449 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hedley J (2014) Respiratory Disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine. Eds: Meredith A & Lord B. BSAVA, UK. pp 160-167.
  • Lewis W (2013) Mediastinal Masses and other Thoracic Surgery. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Surgery, Dentistry and Imaging. Eds: Harcourt-Brown F & Chitty J. BSAVA, UK. pp 257-268.
  • Lennox A (2012) Respiratory Disease and Pasteurellosis. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Queensberry K & Carpenter J. Elsevier Saunders, USA. pp 205-216.
  • Meredith A (2006) Respiratory Disorders. In: BSAVA manual of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: A Meredith & P Flecknell. BSAVA, UK. pp 667-673.
  • Deeb B J (2003) Respiratory Disease and Pasteurellosis. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Queensberry K & Carpenter J. W B Saunders, USA. pp 172-182.


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