ISSN 2398-2969      

Eyelid: blepharospasm

Clapis

Synonym(s): Involuntary closure of the eyelids


Introduction

  • Cause: blepharospasm can be the clinical sign of many ophthalmological diseases, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, dacryocystitis, keratitis, corneal ulcers, and the foreign body presence included. Eyelid closure can be also seen in some cases of facial abscesses, skin tumors and eyelid dermatitis.
  • Signs: complete or partial eyelid closure. Epiphora can be present.
  • Diagnosis: complete ophthalmological examination, fluorescein staining included, skin scrape bacteriology, radiography.
  • Treatment: depends on the cause.
  • Prognosis: depends on the cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Any ophthalmic disease associated with pain.
  • Dusty environment from hay, straw, sawdust or shavings.
  • Ammonia build-up resulting from poor husbandry and inadequate ventilation.
  • Fumes released from some types of wood shavings, eg cedar.

Pathophysiology

  • Closure of the eyelids associated with pain, contraction of orbicular oculi muscle.
  • Reaction to excessive light.
  • Anorexia, stress and paralytic ileus due to vision impairment and pain.

Timecourse

  • Minutes to weeks.

Epidemiology

  • Can spread rapidly in case of myxomatosis Myxomatosis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bedard K M (2019) Ocular Surface Disease of Rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 22 (1), 1-14 PubMed.
  • Bertagnoli S & Marchandeau S (2015) Myxomatosis. Rev Sci Tech 34 (2), 549-56, 539-47 PubMed.
  • Andrew S E (2012) Corneal disease of rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract (2), 341-356 PubMed
  • Florin M, Rusanen E, Haessig M et al (2009) Clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of dacryocystitis in rabbits: a retrospective study of 28 cases (2003-2007). Vet Ophthal 12 (6), 350-356 PubMed.
  • Wagner F & Fehr M (2007) Common ophthalmic problems in pet rabbits. J Exotic Pet Med 16 (3), 158-167 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Jekl V (2017) Radiography in Pet Rabbits, Ferrets, and Rodents. In: Practical Veterinary Radiography. Eds: Niemec B A, Gawor J, Jekl V. CCR Press, USA. pp 271-346. 
  • Jekl V, Hauptman K (2017) Diseases of Exotic Companion Mammals - Rabbits. In: Diseases of exotic pet mammals.  Eds: Knotek Z et al. Profi Press, Czech.  pp 133-174.
  • Varga M (2014) Ophthalmic Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, UK. pp 350-366.
  • Van der Woerdt (2012) Ophthalmologic Diseases in Small Pet Mammals. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents Clinical Medicine and Surgery. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. 3nd edn. Saunders. USA. pp 523-531.
  • Williams D (2012) The Rabbit Eye. In: Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. Eds: William D. Blackwell Publishing, USA. pp 15-55.

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